Dairy Farming - knowledgebase and resources


Dear Murli,

What would be the major challanges in the high milk yielding cows? ie.,30Ltrs/day. What should be the food habits?

How to identify the diseases bruslosis while selecting?

Can we manage with enough green and dry fodders like,guini grass,subabul,velvet beans,sailage,azolla,balanced feeds,etc.
If the genetic condition is having the capacity to yield more,can we expect the same if we make some best practices.

PLease clarify.



If you are making a project report or profit loss plan dont keep 30L/day. It is difficult to find animals yielding so much nobody sells it is yielding so much.
But ofcourse I have seen animals yielding 25L/day for a period of 1 month in peak of lactation. If you take average for an entire lactation period it will be 15L.

You can also make animals yield more by feeding more of cotton cakes or any other cakes but this increase chances of infertility, they dont concieve in 1-2 oestrouse. you will be feeding idle mouth, so what you gain in high yield will be lost durring dry period.


[i]Brucellosis is a very contagious disease in animals and is caused by bacteria. Cattle usually get the disease from contaminated feed, water, or  after licking infected calf or another cow. Most of the infected animals remain carriers of this disease for the rest of their life. Cows loose their calf if they are pregnant while getting infected. By any chance, if the cow gives birth to a calf, they are born weak and die within a short time. Cows develop a type of swelling on the knees. This disease can easily be transmitted to human beings. Disease can also spread through milk if humans consume it without pasteurization.  Brucellosis can also spread from the vaginal discharge of an infected cow or an aborted foetus.  Brucellosis can be prevented by vaccinating young calves. The main signs of brucellosis in cattle are abortions and premature calf birth.  In sheep and goats, the main signs of brucellosis are abortions in the herd, swollen udders due to infection of the mammary glands, swollen testicles, fever and nervousness.

Brucellosis infection can occur in humans, cattle, goats, sheep and pigs. This is a notifiable disease. In humans, the symptoms can be fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, getting tired very fast.  If not attended soon, death can happen.

You can manage with enough greens and dry fodders but you need to feed other cakes like copra(coconut), gingelly, groundnut, rice bran, wheat bran, maize, minerals and vitamin supplements.  Cows must have the genetic potential to produce milk and only such cows will be able to produce more milk when its given a balanced ration. 

There is no effective way to detect the infected animal by their appearance.

Murali krishnan



Signs of Heat in cows:-

Normally if you rear calves in a professional way, they show signs of heat in 15-18 months and they weigh about 175 to 220 kilograms- body weight.

Heat Signs in dairy cows/heifers:-

• Reluctance to eat food.
• Frequent urination
• Yield will be low during this period
• Mounting on other animals
• Increased vocalization
• Swollen vulva, moist and pink in color
• Clear mucous discharge
• Chin rubbing
• She accepts being mounted

Murali krishnan


Good discussion going on…Hats off to u all…

This is hot topic… many of us getting advantage for this…

Now everyone going for dairy farm… i have question…

can we collect milk from farmers ?? & making products from in it ??

In my state Gujarat … amul co-op society collecting milk… If i will start from farmers is it legel ??

I need valuable response…


hindustantimes.com/punjab/ch … 66271.aspx


newindianexpress.com/magazin … 427971.ece


Dear Murli,.

What is the english name to the crop “JOWER”?
And is it different from African Toll?
What is the yielding od these two/achre,and what is the lead time to cut these two for the first time and the next cuts?.
Is these two crops good for making sailage?
Please let me know.



In Indian #English also it is called as Jowar. In Telugu it is called as “Jonna”.The Yield is about 15 to 20 Quantals /Acre  n Rain-fed Crop.The Harvesting Period is 80-90 Days. It is not a Perennial Crop. But however a Grass Variety has been Developed  by scientists Its First Yield would be 45-60 Days, there after can be cut for every 20 Days and also can make silage too.


Dear all,

What about African Toll?
How about this crop,yielding/achre in Tonns/
Is it a multicut grain crop? is sailgae will be good from this?
Please let me know



African tall is a maize variety.
No multicut.
It is mainly for green fodder as fresh use. Each plant grows upto 12-15 feet with 1 cob within 60 days.
However cobs are small size compared to hybrid maize variety and is not ideal for silage.

Yield if grown with proper care and manure, you can expect 20 tons per acre of green grass.
Be careful in windy conditions or heavy rains, because of the height, the maize plants will bend or fall down and may be impossible to get them back up.

If you are going for silage, choose hybrid maize varieties from companies like Pioneer, Ganga Kaveri etc.

Good luck.


HI Nikhil…

How r u ?

Read your all post & gaining knowledge by your long hands on experience…

As u said corn silage is good… How much crude protein in that silage ?


search with keyword “silage in drums” you can find two PDF files about “silage making for small farmers” and “fodder bible”

You can get lot of gyan about silage in the PDF.

Nikhil: Please post your views also please.


Hi Sri.

8 to 10% crude protein…

I have one link … which is mention ALFALFA better that corn silage… Is it true ?

ars.usda.gov/sp2UserFiles/Place/ … silage.pdf


Hi All,

I’m planning to set up a dairy farm in Kancheepuram,Tamil Nadu where the temperature is between 25-32 degree celsius.
We have visited few dairy farms in and around Kancheepuram which are running by Jersey cows which are brought Karur,Tamil
Nadu.The temparature in Karur varies from 24-31 degree celsius.This is for second lactation cow.My queries are…

1.The dairy farm owner said the milk yield has dropped by 5 litres/day when they were brought to Kancheepuram.(33% drop)
Does temparture affect milk yield in cows?The feed he was giving was 25 Kg green fodder and concnetrate feed 5 kg for a 10 litre cow.

2.He has witnessed the peak milk yield during first four months and the peak yield was 10 litres.From fifth month onwards it has started declining by 15%.
5 month yield was 8.5 litres,6th month was 7 litres,8 month yield was  4 litres and 10th month yield was 1.5 litres.
If i add up the yields it is coming to 2000 litres during second lactation.I heard a normal jersey cow yields 4000-4500 litres in a lacation.

Experts please share your thoughts on this.

Thanks All.


Hi All,

I am looking to open small scale dairy(10-20 cows) farm in Outer Delhi on my ancestral land. Any kind of help would be appreciated.


Alfaalfa is also called Lucerene. It is a different crop from silage. Silage can have from 8-10%, but it depends on the stage of harvest.
It is very crucial to harvest at cob milky stage. Anytime later would reduce quality and could result in spoilage, earlier also same as moisture content is higher in the plant.
Lucerene is queen of fodder, sadly it is difficult to grow in Indian conditions economically due to huge weed issues.
One of the ads on this site had seller selling lucerene hay for Rs. 25/kg, excluding transport. This is very costly, I can understand that he has to spend more money to cultivate. In US, Europe, etc. they use it in large scale with the help of weedicides and have developed a weedicide resistant variety. That way, they spray the whole field periodically to cultivate with reduced costs.

Good luck.


First of all, Jersey cows should give at least 18 lts per day, otherwise not good breed jersey.
The milk you mention is considering it gives average of 15 lts in on lactation of 300 days.

Milk decline is normal, by 5th month, the cow should also be pregnant, preferablly in 2nd or 3rd month, so milk will start to reduce.
High temperature affects cows, at least 10% we have seen in our farm.
But the cow also has to get used to your farm and then milk, so maybe it will improve in next lactation.

Good luck.


Temperature in Tamilnadu is generally between 24-35 degree Celsius. Please note that the first three and in some cases 4th also is the best. Temperature affects milk yield of the cows. Keep all 4 sides open and the split roofing must have good height. Sprinkle water on cows body twice a day during 11 am & 3 pm. Wash them well before milking.
The milk yield depends on the genetic potential of the cow and proper feeding and availability of water. A good cow needs 100 liters of water in a day. Water must be present in front of the cow whenever it feels thirsty even at night times.  After the first 3 or 4 months yield drops. The cow must become pregnant again by that time.  The per cow unit area required is less compared to other breeds and maintenance cost is low for Jersey cows – they are very economical producers of milk.  They are suitable breed for Indian climate.  They can yield 14-25 liters in a day, if fed properly.

Murali krishnan


Thanks Nikhil and Murali for your inputs.

I read an article about feeding  on high yielding dairy cows.As per that.

A Jersey cow should be fed 10% of its weight.Say an 400 Kg weighing cow should be given 40 kg green fodder.
of which 30 Kg should be high in energy and rest 10 Kg should be protein rich food.Plus micro nutirents.
I am planning to give 40 Kg of Napier grass which has moderate energy and protien along with concentrtes.
Is this the right way to feed the animals.Little bit confused.

Experts,appreciate your thoughts on this.

Chandra Sekar