Dairy Farming - knowledgebase and resources


A quick search on this forum and you’ll find good information regarding setting up of dairy farm & project plan for bank loan approvals. Regarding govt help, you’ll need to talk to dairy farmers from your state or look up govt site for info which can be state specific.



Feed and water:-

Water requirements of cattle are normally influenced by environment, stage  of production, age, and diet. Water intake directly influences feed intake. When water intake is reduced, daily feed intake is also reduced, which might  significantly impact weight gains. A source of fresh water is a must  and it should be offered freely at all times. Daily water consumption amount will increase in higher temperatures and also during the last four months of pregnancy, which may please be noted.

When feeding lactating dairy cows it is best to limit the amount of certain feeds. Reasons can be problems with palatability, high oil or fat content, and imbalances of certain nutrients. Knowing these restrictions  can prevent problems from occurring. Also, combinations of some of these feeds can be a problem if the maximum is used with no regard to type and amount of nutrients that are provided.

A good dairy cow needs 80-100 liters of water in a day.

Feeding cows: -

The term Total Mixed Ration (TMR) defined as, “the practice of weighing and blending all feedstuffs into a complete ration which provides adequate nourishment to meet the needs of dairy cows.” Each bite consumed contains the required level of nutrients (energy, protein, minerals and vitamins) needed by the cow.


The dairy farmer has more control over the feeding program.
• All forages, grains, protein supplements, minerals and vitamins are thoroughly mixed. Hence, the cow can do very little sorting for individual ration ingredients.
• Completely blended feeds, coupled with grouping of cows, permits greater flexibility in feeding the exact amount of nutrients (energy, protein, etc.) to more accurately feed cows for their particular stage of lactation and level of milk yield.
• Grain mixtures can be liberally fed to a group of high producers without over feeding & the late lactation / lower milking cows, resulting in more efficient use of feeds.


Cows should be grouped by production levels.

• Grouping cows is not feasible in small herds (less than 50 cows).
• If not grouped according to production, cows in late lactation are likely to get too fat.
        Special equipment is needed.
• The equipment must have the capability to completely blend the feed ingredients.
• The mixer-wagon, preferably mobile ones, must be capable of accurately weighing each ingredient.

See below for TMR wagon picture and finely mixed feed - a balanced ration.

Murali krishnan


Dear all,

In cattle dairy farming,is the milking cow mat really required for HF jersy cows.

Please share your thoughts



It is has few advantages, it is for you to decide weather you want these benifits,

  1. Improved Hygiene:Insects(ticks)/bad microbes can dwell in the cracks of concrete flooring, this is completly avoided.
  2. Slipping of hooves is avoided.
  3. Abrasion of thighs during sleeping is avoided.
  4. Easy to clean.


Dear All,

I have heard theat HF cows are haveing capable of very high milk yielding about 30-35 Ltrs a day.
Are there realy do in Karnataka region,if so what should be their food habits.
Please share our thoughts


Not Myth, but possible only in milking competetions not in every day life(see below analogy).  For calculation take 15L/day average.

Hero Motors Splendor’s fuel efficiency is 90KMPL*

(* under ideal test conditions)


Dear Friends,

Could you please provide how to do a round the year green fodder production.

We have 3 acres of agri land and we have 10 cows at present (near Kunigal, Magadi Taluk, Karnataka).

We are planning to increase to 20 cows in near future.



Cow Mats prevent cows from coming in direct contact with the cold floors and also getting injured especially in the knees, thighs and hoof of cows due to friction from the floor. Cow mats prevents injuries to cows while lying down and getting up.

Cows can easily yield 15-22 liters in the morning and it depends on your feeding. The cows will have the genetic potential to produce this much milk but it depends on the energy it receives from the ration fed to the cow containing cattle feeds along with  calcium and mineral supplementation and salt or it should be a mixture of other items like bran-rice and wheat, cakes like gingelly, copra, groundnut, dried tapioca and  greens like green fodder varieties CO3, CO4, fodder cholam etc. Hay is mainly given for regurgitation, a process during digestion. Hay acts as a filler only.  It does not help in yielding more. HF cows have the ability to produce 30-35 liters in a day. The milking interval given also is important – ideally 12 hour gap for eg… Cows can yield more. Water is also very important as milk – a good yielding cow needs 80-100 liters of water a day. More water intake by cows, more milk you get. Feeding a balanced ration is important with sufficient supply of fodder and water. De-worm cows as per your Veterinarian’s advice important. Reduce worm load in lactating cows for maximum production.

Murali krishnan


Fodder requirement for 8 cows is 1 acre for round the year feeding. You start harvesting from one end and by the time you reach the other end, the first cut fodder slips will gain 5 to 7 feet height again ready for cutting. For 20 cows, you need to have 2.5 to 3 acres land for fodder cultivation for round the year feeding.

Murali krishnan


Dear Murli,

You are giving us the best suggestions in this blog.

Is there any whether criteria if we bring cows from Ludhiyana,UP,etc

Please let me know.


Dear Murli Sir,

Does growing only CO3 is beneficial or we need to have some mixed cropping also. ( Lucerne, Dicot /monocot… etc).

Also for irrigation purpose does sprinkler is better or flood irrigation.

Please suggest in multicropping pattern which fills all the requirement of the cows.



Dear Murli,

If we grow Hybrid Napier in 1 achre for the first time,how much we can get in the first cut in terms of Tons?

What should be the time intervel for the next cut?

Please let me know.


Plan for mixed cropping. Better to use sprinkler system.

An adult cow needs minimum 10% of green fodder of its total body weight. An animal weighing 400 kg requires 40 kg green fodder in a day. 30 kg should be Monocotyledons fodder and 10 kg should be Dicotyledons fodder.

Monocotyledons fodder :-Fodder Maize, Fodder Jowar, Fodder Bajra, Oat, Hybrid Napier, Para grass, Rhode grass.

Monocotyledons fodder - rich in energy, used for supplying energy and filling the stomach.

Dicotyledons fodder:- Lucerne, Berseem ,Cow pea,Guar, Stylo, Subabul

Dicotyledons fodder is rich in proteins and  is used to supply body building proteins and assists in more milk production.

Murali krishnan



75 days for first cutting after planting CO3/CO4 and every 50 days after that - one cutting. Distance from slip to slip should be 90 x 70 cm. Around 45 to 50 MT can be produced from 1 acre. Yearly 6-8 cuttings possible, if timed correctly. 

Murali krishnan


Dear Murli,

This means,in an year in total we can get 40-50 tonns for 1 achre.
Can we get at least 10 Tonnes in each cut.
One more is jower ie.,Africaj Toll what about this fodder. Please do let me know.




Elephant grass is a tall grass originally from Africa. It grows in deep cluster up to 10 feet tall. It grows along lake beds and rivers where the soil is rich with plenty of water source. Local farmers collect this grass for their animals, they tie it in big bundles on their way home, chaff it and feed cows. Yellowish or purple in colour, the stems will be coarse and hairy, and almost 1 inch thick at the bottom. The leaves are 2 to 3 feet long, pointed at the ends, and leaf 1 inch wide. The edge of the leaf is very sharp. This makes the posture of elephant grass nearly impossible to pass through, because of the sharp edges of leaves.

Murali krishnan


Dear Murli,

I have 6.5 achres of land. As of now I have planned below.

1/2 achre is for the infrastructure,guest house,employee accomdation,sailage,gobar gas pit.
1 achre is Maize or Hybrid Napier green fodder.
4 Achre is for good multi cut grain for sailage.
1 achre guini grass.
In between I have planned to make some free space to lay down the cows in the morning.
In between I have planned to  susbenia,subabul,drumstick,velvet beans,azolla.

Suggest me if its is correct or do I need to change my plan.



Mixed fodder cultivation is good. Providing open yard for cows to be let loose for sometime is a good idea. Provide water drinking facilities on the sides.

Murali krishnan


Chilling and preservation of Milk

You can chill milk from 35 degree C to 4 degree C using Bulk Milk Coolers of 50, 100,300, 500, 1000,3000,5000,10000,15000 litre (ideally in 2.5 to 3 hours time in the morning, evening milk will get chilled faster, as morning milk already chilled is present inside in the cooler, so it takes less time to chill to 4 degree compared to morning time). You should not freeze milk as it can create many issues.
Chilled milk taste won’t change. Chill the milk to 4 degree C and transport it in insulated tankers to the milk collection centres or dairy plants. Better to be equipped for slight chilling in the tanker itself in case the temperature rises above 4 degree C.
The most cost efficient way of storing milk will be in a Bulk Milk Cooler, Direct Expansion type with digital temperature indicators. The cooler shuts off automatically when it reaches 4 degree and starts on its own when the temperature rises. This is possible using a temperature sensor probe installed at the bottom of the tank which senses the temperature of the milk inside the cooler. In today’s world chilling of milk is automated giving you real time data. For e.g. how much milk poured in BMC, pouring time, chilling temperature, chilling time taken, Power- Grid or generator, its running time enabling you to get, real time data. You can keep a check on the Grid and Diesel expenses of chilling centers, by making use of this technology. It will also give sms alerts if milk is poured again or milk is lifted. The chilling centre person responsible can digitally lock the BMC, which will give SMS and e mail alerts on adding milk or milk lifting time. So this will enable the person responsible for milk collection to keep a track on the truck movement, following already scheduled milk lifting in a particular route.
Milk must be chilled and stored in liquid form only in insulated & refrigerated tanker, to avoid loss of temperature.  You can keep the milk 1 day if the milk is not disturbed and temperature maintained in insulated Bulk Milk Coolers with Digital Temperature indicators with auto on/off set up and with agitator operating in between to ensure uniform chilling. Bulk Milk Coolers are mainly of 2 types – DX type – direct expansion type (Gas used to chill milk as it has dimple jacketed bottom) and IBT type – Ice Bank Type, where in chilled water is already present in the compartment coming in contact with milk, chilling water procedure should start 1.5 hours or more to build ice on the sides of the milk storing compartment, before milk is poured into the cooling tank.  An Ice Bank Tank using an Ice Builder immerse the bottom of the inner milk chamber (milk tank) in an open pool of water with copper tubes containing refrigerant suspended in the water.

Murali krishnan


See the pictures of different fodder for cows and buffaloes.

Murali krishnan