Dairy Farming - knowledgebase and resources


#221

Mr.Chandru,

40 kg greens is ok for an average cow yielding 12 liters in the morning. Compounded cattle feed for such a cow, recommended ration of pelleted cattle feed will be 400 gms per liter ie; 12 x 400 gms = 4.8 kg + 1 kg (for body maintenance)= 5.8 kg, in the morning. Similarly for the evening yield.  Its recommended to give 12 hours gap if possible like 4 am in the morning and 4 pm in the evening. Give water as per the need of the cow. Give enough water after feeding. Add calcium and mineral supplementation. De-worm cows periodically for good results.

Murali krishnan
srivinayakatvm@gmail.com
9447088234



#222

Some quick calculation.
A cow should be fed around 2.1% of its body weight in Dry Matter (DM) for body maintenance and another 0.3 kg per liter milk production.
So for Jersey with 400 kg body weight,
Body Maintenance = 2.1% * 400 kg = 8.4 kg DM
Milk assuming 18 liters per day = 0.3 * 18 = 5.4 kg DM

Napier has 20% DM, which means 40 kg Napier will provide 8 kg DM to the cow.

Plus 5.4 kg of concentrates with minimum 20% Crude Protein. Roughly I can say a basic mix of 4 kgs of Wheat Bran, Maize Powder etc and around 1 kg Groundnut cake or similar cake. Oil cake is important as it will provide high protein which is missing in your fodder as well as basic concentrate mix.

Use 100 gm mineral mix per cow. Also use Sodium Bicarbonate 50 gms per cow. If you are comfortable using Urea, that is also good source of protein, should not exceed 100 gms per cow per day.

I doubt whether the cow will be able to consume 40 kg of green fodder, you may have to reduce it to 30 kg and include some dry fodder to compensate for DM.

Good luck.
Nikhil


#223

Feeding hay or dry fodder helps the cow in regurgitation which helps in digestion process and absorption. A mixture of Brans(Rice bran, wheat bran) and Cakes (coconut, gingelly, groundnut) along with cotton seed cake in crushed form after soaking it in water is very good for cows. Tapioca in dried form is also seen in some areas for feeding cows, which is rich in starch.

Murali krishnan

quote author=niksnarayana link=topic=155.msg18503#msg18503 date=1413512776]
Some quick calculation.
A cow should be fed around 2.1% of its body weight in Dry Matter (DM) for body maintenance and another 0.3 kg per liter milk production.
So for Jersey with 400 kg body weight,
Body Maintenance = 2.1% * 400 kg = 8.4 kg DM
Milk assuming 18 liters per day = 0.3 * 18 = 5.4 kg DM

Napier has 20% DM, which means 40 kg Napier will provide 8 kg DM to the cow.

Plus 5.4 kg of concentrates with minimum 20% Crude Protein. Roughly I can say a basic mix of 4 kgs of Wheat Bran, Maize Powder etc and around 1 kg Groundnut cake or similar cake. Oil cake is important as it will provide high protein which is missing in your fodder as well as basic concentrate mix.

Use 100 gm mineral mix per cow. Also use Sodium Bicarbonate 50 gms per cow. If you are comfortable using Urea, that is also good source of protein, should not exceed 100 gms per cow per day.

I doubt whether the cow will be able to consume 40 kg of green fodder, you may have to reduce it to 30 kg and include some dry fodder to compensate for DM.

Good luck.
Nikhil
[/quote]


#224

Thank you Murali and Nikhil :wink:


#225

Hi, I wanted to know what is the max quantity of azolla that can be given without any side effects per day?

I have read about feeding upto 2kgs per day. But if I am able to produce more, will it be suitable to give upto 6-8Kgs per day and reduce concentrate quantity?


#226

2Kg/animal/day is maximum. If you feed more cows get bloat.

2Kg for animal of 450Kg weight.


#227

Have seen farmers feeding Azolla from 0.5kg to 1.0 kg maximum it should not go more than 0.25%of the body weight.

This they are feeding to HF and Jersy breeds.  But yet to spot one for desi cows.


#228

Models for cows/buffaloes:-

1-5 buffaloes/cows: Trolley mounted milking machines.
5-10 buffaloes/cows: Fixed type milking machine with 1 can
10-25 buffaloes/cows: Fixed type milking machine with 2 cans.
25-50 buffaloes/cows: Fixed type milking machine with 5 cans
50-100 buffaloes/cows: Fixed type milking machine with 10 cans.

• Milking machines milk the cows in the same fashion and rhythm everyday even if the person changes the next day. In Hand Milking when the person changes it affects the cow as the speed of milking of another person will be different and most of the milker’s smoke or chew tobacco while milking.
• Milking machines operate on electricity and it’s better to choose machines without oil as you need not incur recurring expenses.
• The heart of the milking machine is the Pulsator which helps in pressing the teats of the cow, and it must have alternate pulsation preferably pneumatic oil free type having 60:40 pulsation ratio. Alternate pulsation means if a cow has 4 teats, it should press 1 & 3 first, then leave it and press 2 & 4 next, again leave it and press 1,3. It is like the alphabet " X", pressing opposite teats.
• The vacuum pump must be preferably oil free type which will help you to avoid recurring expenses having a capacity of 180 litre/minute, connected to an electric motor. It must have a vacuum tank if you need to milk more than 1 cow at a time. Today there are machines which can milk 1/2/5/8/10/12 cows at a time. The motor capacity and the vacuum tank size differ with the number of cows to be milked at a time.
• Irrespective of the number of cows to be milked, you can calculate @ 8-10 cows in one hour & the can capacity will be of 20/30 litres.
• Hygienic milking: Few steps are to be followed.

  1. Wash the udder of the cow first with clean water. Wipe it with a towel.
  2. Strip the cows using your hand just to ensure that cows are ready for milk let down.
  3. One towel may be used for wiping the teats of the cow. One towel for one cow.  Small hand towel. Put it for washing after that. Single use teat wipes can be used, throw away type, similar to paper napkins.
  4. Attach the teat cups. You may leave the cow now. It takes 6-8 minutes to milk one cow irrespective of the yield.
  5. The milk from the 4 teats of the cow will end in 4 different times. There is no harm in the machine pressing the teats of the cow until you see that milking is over now from the 4 teats of the cow.
  6. Once you see that milk is over on all the 4 teats, just press the cluster using your hand just to give a downward pull. See that you don’t press too much. It will give the feeling like how we do normally with our hands when you are about to leave one teat after you finish milking- you press hard on the teat plus a downward pull.
  7. Once you complete milking and remove the cluster from the udder (you will have to remove only one teat cup by inserting your finger between the teat and the rubber liner used for milking the cow. This action will let the air from outside enter the teat cup and it loosens the grip of the teat cup resulting in other teat cups also loosen. You remove only one teat cup and the rest three gets automatically detached, just pull the cluster )
  8. It’s better to use Iodine spray on the teats after milking. Better than teat dip cups use teat spray or use non returnable dip cups to prevent infection from one teat to another.
  9. Make sure you clean the milking cluster using three brushes like Liner Cleaning brush having big bristles at one end and a narrow one at the other end, and a long milk tube brush, a thin brush to clean the milk passage holes inside the teat cup.
  10. Cluster assembly will have a top thick plastic and a bottom transparent piece where in you can see milk flowing out from each teat  and milk will go to the can via transparent milk tubes to the milking can.

For more information, please mail to srivinayakatvm@gmail.com. We can also provide equipment needed to establish Large Dairy Herd Farms with latest automation with software assistance, which will give reports on your mobile/e mail about the critical developments in the farm like milk yield, animals needing veterinary care, sick animals, etc. Mail us for more details.

Murali Krishnan
9447088234







#229

Factors for your consideration while planning for a dairy farm

  1. Construct slightly elevated shed from the ground level. Prevent water logging on all four sides.
  2. Ensure good air circulation. Split roofing ideal.
  3. Ensure good drainage facility.
  4. Manpower must be made available in the project area.
  5. Have separate storage facilities little away from the shed for dung and urine.
  6. The shed should be away from thickly populated areas. Plan according to herd size.
  7. Plant shade giving trees around the shed.
  8. Allocate fodder cultivation land (1 acre for 8 cows) and good watering facility must be there for
    fodder.
  9. It will be nice if water drinking facility is provided individually for cows using water
    bowls in tied up system or have water tubs in loose housing system.
  10. Electricity must be made available, if not standby generators must be there as fodder
    chopping, milking and high pressure water pumping for cleaning – for all these we need power.
  11. Ensure veterinary care nearby. Have tie up with a nearby veterinarian.
  12. Stock first aid kit, de-wormers, boluses/ injectables for fever,diarrhoea etc.
  13. Keep in mind land for extension, if need be.
  14. Housing cows according to the yield. For eg. High yielders on one side, Pregnant cows - a
    separate block, sick cows on one side, about to calve cows on a separate shed , heifers all on
    a separate shed, house calves on one side having pipe separation, visible to the cows.
  15. Milk room and Milking Machine must be near the shed. Bucket machines ideal up to 100 cows.
    More than 100, better to go for Parlors having milk measurement facility using milk meters and
    milk finally getting collected in a Bulk Milk Cooler manufactured by reputed companies.
  16. Feed storage, dry fodder storage area must be planned in the initial stage itself. Plan one room for fodder chaffing with motor driven chaff cutters.
  17. Milk must be sold to the end consumer if possible to earn maximum price. Sell it as fresh milk. Select Housing Societies/Flats/Schools/College Hostels or canteens/hotels. Try to find avenues from where you can source good price with minimum effort.

srivinayakatvm@gmail.com
94447088234







#230

Selection of cows:

• Buy cows which are healthy, look for the milk vein under the stomach ending in udder.
• Better buy dehorned cows.
• Always find out what feeds were given to that cow and slowly switch over to the feed available in your area. A sudden change might result in drop of yield.
• Buy cows which have just delivered within 3 weeks.
• Better to buy cows less than 5 years of age.
• Normally in cows, the first 3 lactations are good. The best will be 2nd and third.
• Look for signs of mastitis, problems due to delivery, any infections suffered like FMD needs to be checked.
• Its always better to check the milk yield by the purchaser by milking the cow continuously for 3 times.
• Reduction in teat size after milking is a good sign. Teat size must be long.
• Bright eyes, big stomach, long body, good skin texture with polished hair, are other natures to look out for.
• Udder and teats must be soft.
• Better to deworm the cows after purchase. Not immediately, after 1 or 2 months.
• Never buy cows believing brokers words. They also project a big picture as their aim is to make money from both ends.

Murali krishnan
srivinayakatvm@gmail.com
9447088234





#231

For healthy and productive cows, please take care of the following:-

• Save cows from hunger, malnutrition and thirst.
• Keep cows away from fear and distress.
• Let them be free.
• Save them from pain, diseases and injuries.
• See that they are very comfortable, good shelter and resting area.
• Protect their health by timely vaccinations against FMD, HS + BQ.
• Conduct De-worming periodically

Provide clean drinking water always in front of the cows on a 24 x7 basis.

Cows require energy, protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals to be in good health.

Murali krishnan
9447088234



#232

[color=green]Removing the Cluster after milking[/color]: The vacuum must be turned off before the cluster is removed and this is done normally by pulling down the valve plate, used for switching on/off position in a milk claw bowl . Otherwise, pulling the teat cups while the vacuum is still on may cause trauma to the teat ends, weakening the sphincter muscles that keep the streak canal closed. Normally it takes an hour after milking for the streak canal to re-close. Any teat end trauma may compromise the ability of the sphincter muscle to close the canal and prolong the exposure of the teat end to mastitis-causing pathogens. Most people milking cows tend to over-milk the udder. In an effort to collect the remaining milk, they physically push down on the claw or pull down on one or more teat cups. This is called [color=red]machine stripping[/color].

murali krishnan


#233

Housing systems must provide:
• A comfortable, well drained lying area
• Shelter from adverse weather
• Space to allow the animal to move and lie down and rise freely without undue risk of injury
• Access to adequate food and water to maintain health and vigour.

There are many farms where cows are housed for an entire period of lactation and the shortfalls in the housing systems become more noticed. This can create significant adverse effects on animal health, welfare and production.
If a housing system has to be successful, it must provide for the spatial and behavioral needs of the cow. To implement this, it is important to understand how an animal behaves while performing routine activities such as drinking, feeding, lying, rising and walking. The design of the barn, related routines and the policies of management applied in the farm can affect the health of the cows. The cleanliness of the barn, the housing provided, cow comfort and animals can have an impact on both lameness and mastitis.
Not taking into account of the production plan, to maximize performance of the cows the accommodation must provide the cow’s most basic needs to the maximum. At a minimum, it must provide a comfortable, well drained lying area preferably on top of cow mats, shelter from sun and rain, and space to allow the animal to move freely in the barn without risk of any injury. The cows also need easy access to food and water at all times.

For a housing system to be successful, it should provide for the spatial and behavioral needs of the cow. To attain this, it is important to understand how an animal behave while performing routine activities such as drinking, feeding, lying, rising and walking. The design of the system and the level of management applied can affect the health and welfare of the cow; this can have an influence on ailments such as lameness and mastitis. Take necessary measures to avoid it.

Murali krishnan
9447088234
srivinayakatvm@gmail.com



#234

Hi all,

I need a open type shed construction to accomdate for 40 cows in a very economical cost. Can anyobody has the vendor base please give the contact.

It has to be done in Bangalore.

Regards,
Sheshaprasad
9886664833


#235

Hi Chandra/murali ji,
I am in process of opening a dairy farm in Gorakhpur region of eastern U.P. I have already started with 2 sahiwal cows from last 2 months. I am going to buy HF cows from Punjab since good yielding cows are not available in my area.
My only problem is getting CO4 grass seedlings.
Can you tell me from where can I get this grass in U.P??
Your early reply will be highly appreciated.
Regards,
Sagar D.


#236

Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute
Near Pahuj Dam, Gwalior Road
Jhansi - 284 003 (UP) India
Phone: 0510-2730666, 2730385, 2730158 Fax: 0510-2730833
E-mail: igfri_jhansi@yahoo.co.in
Try this place.Goodluck Mr.Sagar!!.

Murali


#237

dear sir

I giri  from kakinda  i would like to start  Indian breed  dairy farm. please tell me of  which  place available at  Indian breed  and contact numbers.

which equipment required  that details and contact details

it’s very helpful to me

regards
GIRIKUMAR
08978332255


#238

Dear ALL

Kindly suggest  milking machine types is the best .

actively i start with 2 cows and every 2 months i ill add to 1 animal  so which is  the milking machine is best kindly give the advise to me .

regards
GIRI 


#239

You may please go for a portable model electrically operated milking machine, with oil free pneumatic pulsator and oil free vacuum pump.
Lot of companies are there, you select somebody assuring good after sales support in your area.

Murali krishnan


#240

Thank you sir

present iam  near to Hyderbad  so kindly  tel me mechine  price Aprox.