Dairy Farming - knowledgebase and resources


I have 8 aceres land in khamgaon dist -buldhana (maharashtra) interested in starting 50 buffalo farming please help


Dear All,

I need maize green fodder in tonns. If anyone is available please do infrom me.



Hi all,

      I am from Kerala ,new to dairying . I have cross bread jersey cows and selling milks to MILMA(Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd) . They said  water percentage in milk is very high . I am giving green fodder , cattle feed and Corn floor ( Pearl Millet (Kambu) and Corn (Cholam)).
Milk yielding from each cow in an average 7 litter in morning  .Temperature in my area goes up to 34°C.
How can i improve milk quality ? 
Need to include anything food ?



Dear Mr.Murali Krishnan,
I saw some of your posts above appreciated sir for your patience.

I want to start my own Business related to Agro or Dairy i.e. Dairy Farming. I need to start Dairy of about 15 Buffalo/Cow in first batch and after six months 10, and grow it slowly. I have collected most Dairy farm related information’s from available sources and want to validate some of my thoughts to plan things in better ways. I need an expert advice on following my thoughts

  1. In Hyderabad, Telangana climate condition, which animal (Cow or Buffalo) would be good option to start Dairy farming?

  2. How much milk can be produced in a good condition by an animal per day basis (based on Lactation and Dry day’s calculation)? My calculation is - if your animal can produce 10 Lt. of milk on daily basis then you can expect 60% to 70% production on yearly basis (depending on overall Lactation/ Dry days’ calculation).

  3. Where I can sell milk that gives me good profit? Can you please suggest about whole sale milk buyer in and around of Hyderabad region? I think the full cream milk price is around Rs. 48 to Rs. 50 a lt. in Hyderabad but if you are giving to Milk trader they can give you max. Rs. 32 to Rs. 37 per lt. of milk. That gives you very less profit. I need to explore the places where I can sell my milk @ Rs. 42 to Rs. 47 lt.

  4. I have a land of 1000 sq-yrds & 350 sq-yrds in the city limits is it enough for 25 Animals?

  5. As I don’t have a land I have to purchase fodder from manufacturer, what should be the cost per year. (Lactation & Dry period)

  6. Need to take classes for dairy farming.

  7. Which machines required for 25 Animals, and how many labors required.
    If someone have the project report for small dairy please share with as I need badly.

Yousuf Luqman.


Hello Mr.Ranjith,

Try giving rice bran, wheat bran and cotton seed - soak it nicely and grind it with less water. Give traditional feeds like Groundnut cake, Gingelly cake, Coconut cake. Mix all these and feed the cow. Don’t add too much of water. Water if required can be given later. Give minimum 25 kg greens per cow per day. Give calcium and mineral supplements everyday.

Happy Farming!!

Murali Krishnan



Normally in A.P. I have seen mostly Murrah Buffaloes. For good profit definitely Milk should be sold to End user to get maximum price. Target Schools, Hotels, Hospitals for bulk sales & flats, housing societies etc. Charge Rs.1 or 2 more than refrigerated milk. Fodder can be produced using Hydroponic Machines. You save time and Labour here. Avoid dependency on fodder & Labour. Generally you get milk for 10 months provided the cow/buffalo gets inseminated again by 3rd month. You need a 2 can fixed type machine with oil free vacuum pump and having pneumatic type pulsator, latest type.


Murali Krishnan


Dear Murali Sir,

I do agree with your all inputs and many thanks for your guidance. Have almost read all of your posts. With your permission, I would like to differ from you on “Hydrponic Machines”.
Is it economical???..I really doubt!!!
Please refer this very valuable thread

Mr Nikhil Narayana has done a very good job in evaluating the economics of hydroponically grown fodder.



Hello all,

Can anyone tell me how to grow subabul,drumstick,hedge lucern?
These do we need to get the seeds and grow or the plant saplings to take it?
If so where do we get it in Bangalore?



hi shesha
subabul and drumstick are trees you will get saplings
hedge lucerne  you have to sow seed


But where will get it?


For Those who have not seen or experienced a milking machine, may do the following steps in order to understand the working of the machine.

Please insert your finger inside the cluster used for milking cows in the milking can. It will only press and leave, press and leave your finger, exactly like how you milk a cow using your hand. Here the rhythm is the key. See for example, today you are relaxed, have time, you milk slowly. Tomorrow there must be some marriages, you are in a hurry. You need to go early. So you do milking faster. That means, the same person milking in 2 days will be in different fashion.

You cannot create damage to the cows teats even if you keep the cluster there ( in the udder of the cow) for long because of the pressure induced, which is measured using a vacuum gauge and a vacuum regulator. These comments were spread by the villagers in the 1980’s when milking machines were launched and getting popular in India. Now a days even illiterate people won’t have these doubts as machines have become common everywhere. No fears that the machine will injure the cow’s teats. Remember to buy machines without oil lubrication as in oil based machines vacuum pump gets choked fast when dust from the atmosphere gets mixed with oil and ensuring the farmer recurring expenses every month. Try to keep machines where dust is minimal. Remember that the pulsator is the heart of the machine and it must have alternate pulsation and not all 4 teats at a time which is not correct,preferably pneumatic type,oil free.


Murali Krishnan


Dairy farming has been part of agriculture in India for over thousands of years now.  Modern dairy cows are bred specifically to produce large quantities of milk.
Cows produce milk after they give birth to a calf and dairy cows normally give birth to one calf per year to continue producing milk. Usually they are artificially inseminated within three months of giving birth to a calf. The high producing cows produce milk on an average for three years generally.

The majority of dairy cows in India are kept without access to pasture for most of their lives. This is known as ‘zero grazing’ and is practiced increasingly in large-scale operations. In operations where they do not have access to pasture, cows are often housed in sheds. Some sheds have free roaming yards next to their barns. Loose housing is practiced in some large dairy herd farms.

Milk is a heavy product and a dairy cow may be carrying several liters of milk in her udder. It can force her hind legs into an unnatural position making the cow difficult to walk and it can result in lameness. It might result in the cow standing and lying down difficult and uncomfortable. Mastitis is a painful udder infection which is prevalent among dairy cows. Nearly 20% percent of deaths of dairy cows are attributed to mastitis, which is more reported than any other health problem in the dairy industry. Housing cows indoors for long periods can increase the prevalence of mastitis. Infertility among high-yielding dairy cows is a major problem affecting 15 per cent here which leads to the cow being removed from the herd. It is linked to stress, poor body condition and the demand for high milk production.

Cows kept indoors normally have less opportunity to act naturally and exercise. Poor ventilation and high humidity results increases the risk and spread of infection. These factors will have an adverse effect on the cow health and cow welfare. Hard concrete flooring can cause foot damage and is very painful for lame cows. Zero grazing systems, in which cows are housed all the year round, can be linked to increased lameness among dairy cows. Using cow mats will protect the cows from foot and udder infections.

Enclosing picture of good milk producing cows from abroad.

Murali Krishnan


Dear All,

Can anyone suggest me the process of making sailage. We are making some tanks by building bricks and the roof will be covered by PPGI sheet.
Now I wanted to know what all we have mix with the choffed fodder. In our area there is a problem of ants,rats coming in if we add salt,butter,jaggery. So will this be ok if we dont add all these?
Just a choffed fodder covered with airtight?



Just a chaffed fodder covered with airtight?

Yes you can.  This silage making is started to store the green food for cows for the summers.  After knowing the benefits its fed to cows regularly.


Many places I have seen adding butter,salt,urea,jaggery etc.
But does it help in yielding more?


yes certainly silage is benificial and adding jaggery(much better molasses if you can get it),urea,probiotics, will make silage tastier and cows just love them like kids loving chocolate ( my personal experience with  silage) yield is defenitely better (reduces concentrates requirement)
dont add butter as it will undergo [color=red]rancidity[/color]
i will attach silage making file
Silage making for indian dairy farmers (Note prepared by Dr.D.P.Bhoite).pdf (822 KB)


[color=red]Follow this when milking. Ensure teats are clean. [/color]

  1. Always milk after cleaning teats
    Ensure excellent cow comfort, bed well, clip excessive udder hair, use water sparingly and clean teats
            thoroughly with individual medicated towels.

  2. Fore strip every teat
    Check carefully for mastitis, massage each teat for oxytocin release

  3. Pre-dip if required
    Reduce number of environmental bacteria with a fast acting pre-milk dip.

  4. Dry teats thoroughly
    Use a disposable paper towel for each cow for thorough and efficient drying. Never re-use the paper
            again on another cow

  5. Position clusters carefully

    Avoid twists and uneven milk-out and work such that clusters go on 90 seconds after start of
    fore milking.
    Avoid attaching clusters sooner than 90 seconds.

  1. Remove clusters carefully soon after the milk stops flowing

    Avoid liner slip as milking get slows down and remove teat cups after closing the vacuum.

  1. Dip teats immediately after cluster removal
        After cluster removal promptly apply a good quality dip over the lower third portion of each teat.

8.  Use a free area after milking for the cows to take a stroll

      Ensure cows remain standing for 20 minutes after milking by providing fresh feed after they leave.
      Free roaming area better with feeding facility

[color=orange]Murali Krishnan[/color]



Observe your cows, ideally on a hard (i.e. concrete) non-slip surface. Monitor each cow individually allowing them to make between 6-10 uninterrupted strides. Watch the cow from the side and the rear.
Good mobility : -
Walks with even weight bearing and rhythm on all four feet, with a flat back; long fluid strides possible; or steps uneven (rhythm or weight bearing) or strides shortened; affected limb/s not immediately identifiable.
Impaired mobility :-
Uneven weight bearing on a limb that is immediately identifiable and/or obviously shortened stride.
Severely impaired mobility :-
Unable to walk as fast as a brisk human pace (cannot keep up with the healthy herd) and signs of impaired mobility.

Lameness is known to be a huge welfare issue across the dairy industry worldwide with over 30% of the herd being lame at any one time. However, the prevalence of lameness has been shown to range from 0% to 70% at farm level. Lame cows are not only in considerable discomfort but also in pain and they are also predisposed to further disease challenges (e.g. mastitis, swollen hocks) reduced fertility, lowered milk yield and decreased appetite etc. All these factors significantly affect the welfare of the cows and in addition they have hefty financial implications both in the short and long term.
Early and timely recognition, investigation and treatment of any lame animal are very much essential to limit pain, aid recovery and minimize any additional complication. Regular on farm mobility assessment is an very important step in resolving lameness issues. Lameness caused by foot lesions can be both infectious (digital dermatitis, foul) and non-infectious (sole hemorrhage, sole ulcers and white line disease) and this is important for farmers to identify the types of lesions present in order to prevent the causes which can be addressed.

Murali Krishnan



Milk let down is the natural process for cows to remove milk from the udder. It is done with the release of oxytocin from a gland at the base of the brain following a stimulus which may be heard, seen or felt by them. All actions which might induce fear to the cows must be avoided at this stage. The average time needed to prepare the cow for milking and to start the let down process could be 60-90 seconds.  Give a short gap to start milking after the oxytocin release.

Murali krishnan


From where we can get this breeds .

Do they are compatible with all Indian conditions specially  in madhya pradesh  or extra care should be given to them.