Thaiwan guava – boon to guava farmers

Thaiwan guava is becoming popular every year among the guava farmers . The reason is regular fruiting character with two production season every year one from March to April and another from July August …
Another most important character of thaiwan guava is sweetiness of fruit . The high ascorbic acid content in the fruits makes this guava fruit internally acclaimed and most sought after fruit in the international market  fetching premium price for quality fruits … Each fruit weighs around 250 -300 grams . The foreign buyers prefer this size to bigger size .And the fruit looks light green in maturity
The thaiwan guava tree reaches the height of 2.5 to 3.0 Meters in average with canopy size of 2.0 to 2.5 Meter diameter
Planting season – one month before onset of monsoon in India …June – July
Planting pits – The pits are dug in the dimension of 2’ * 2’ * 2” BLD a month before planting and allowed the pits to cure until planting is done . Before the planting , the top soil dug out of each pit is mixed with 10 kgs of farm yard manure , 100 grams urea, 100 grams potassium and 2.0 kgs of super phosphate and  pit is filled upto 45 centimeters depth and thaiwan guava seedling is planted just in the centre of pit with graft union exposed from soil level inside the pit . The seeddlings must be planted 15-20 Cms down the general field surface inside the pit .
After the planting , the Bio fertilizers, bio pesticides and VAM fungal culture  that are mixed together with powdered farmyard manure and neem cake are applied @ 250- 500 grams to each pit and watered …
Spacing of the plants – 3.0 Meter by 2.0 meter row to row and plant to plant spacing is adopted for high yield of thaiwan guava . At this spacing 666 plants are planted in an acre of land …
Mulching of guava trees – Mulching with coir pith waste provide excellent cover against hot sun and prevent weeds as well as water and nutrient loss thus enhance growth and fruits quality
Training and pruning of Thaiwan guava – When the plant reaches 75-80 cms high , cut back the plant to the height of 50-60 cms from the ground . This will stimulate the branching ( primary scaffold ) . when the side branch reaches 30-40 cms long growth , select 3 – 4 strong branches in such a way that the retained branches fan around the central stem like an umbrella and all other weak branches are removed . The retained branches are cut back to half the length say 20 cms long or just green immatured part of the branches are cut off retaining matured brown color twigs of each retained primary branches . And further branching is encouraged in each primary branches . The same procedure is applied here in pruning the secondary branches as done earlier in the primary branches and 2-3 secondary branches are allowed in each primary branches and thrid light pruning is done on each secondary branches to produce tertiary branches . This will shape thaiwan guava tree with excellent canopy that produce excellent flowers and fruits
Each tree has 3 primary branches and 2 secondary branches and 4 tertiary branches . So total no of branches in each tree is 3* 2 * 4 = 24 shoots that produce flowers
Each branch produce 3 fruits in ana average . so single plant produce 24 branches * 3 fruits = 72 fruits . Each fruit is weighing about average 250 grams per fruit
So total fruit weight per tree is 72 fruits * 0.250 kgs = 18 kgs
So 666 guava tree produces 666 plants * 18 kgs = 12.0 MT ( 11,988 kgs )
There are tow harvest . so annaul per acre yield of guava fruit is 24.0 MT
Each kg of thaiwan guava sells @ Rs. 50 in Indian market and Rs.150 in overseas market
So per acre income is 24,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 12.0 lacs in domestic markets
To obtain abov income following intervention is needed
As plant grows we need to increase soil organic carbon  to the level of atleast  2.0 % ( higher level of productivity is obtained in soil carbon level of 4.0 to 5.0 % )
Indian soil except hilly region is having very poor level of organic carbon say around 0.5 % . At this level of soil organic carbon , the soil remains less productive or simply sterile and produce less yield and poor fruit quality .
So to increase soil organic carbon we need to apply green manure or green leaf manure . During monsoon season sow 8-10 kgs of sunhemp seeds in the interrow spaces . This will in about 50-55 days give 6-8 MT of green bio mass . The plants are harvested and laid close to plants in rows along the guava plants and covered by soil . And if possible we can spray Urea + gypsum mix over the green matter and then cover by soil . This will escalate decomposition process faster . 6.0 MT of green mater will add 750-900 kgs of organic matter . Like wise you can add green matter in addition to 10-20 MT of farmyard manure for the first 2-3 years . If you do this for the first 3 years , the soil organic carbon level will increase by o.1- 0.2 % every year and will go beyond 1.0 % of total soil volume . There after you can add organic matter in the form of farmyard manure @ 20 kgs per tree , say 12 MT of farmyard manure .
By the time the guava plant attains the age of three years and are about to produce more flowers and fruits , the soil would have turned into highly productive growing/ supporting medium with lot of soil microbes that produce aminoacids that helps in better growth and yield of thaiwan guava .
Fertilizers –0. 460  kg nitrogen , 0.320  kg phosphorus and 0.3 kg potash per tree is needed per year
For 666 plants – grown up trees ( 5 th  year onwards )
Nitrogen – 666 *0.460 =306    kgs of nitrogen
Phosphorus – 666 *0.320  kgs =213  kgs
Potash – 666 * 0.300 kgs = 199.80 kgs
In terms of urea = 306 * 2.17 = 664 kgs urea
In terms of super phosphate = 213  kgs * 6.25= 1331 kgs
Interms of muriate of potash = 199.80 * 1.66 = 331.668
Urea = 664  kgs  ( single tree – 1.0 kg )
SSP = 1331 kgs ( single tree – 2.0 kgs )
MOP = 332 kgs ( single tree – 0.50 kgs )
For the first year
Urea – 200  grams per plant
SSP – 400 grams per plant
MOP – 100 grams per plant
Second year
Urea – 200 grams per plant
SSP – 800 grams per plant
Mop – 200 grams per plant
Third year
Urea – 600 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 1200 grams per plant
MoP- 300 grams per plant
Fourth year
Urea – 800 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 1600 grams per plant
MOP – 400 grams per plant
Fifth year
Urea- 1000 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 2000 grams per plant
MOP – 500 grams per plant
Farmyard manure
First year – 10 kgs per plant
Second year – 20 kgs per plant
Thrid year onwards – 30 kgs of per plant
Fourth year – 40 kgs per plant
Fifth year – 50 kgs per plant
Foliar spray for better fruit quality
ZnSO4 -0.25%  + FeSO4 -0.25%  +  MgSO4 0.25%  + Borax 0.1%
Preharvest spray of calcium nitrate @ 1% - three srpays during the period of fruit set to harvest
Bending – bending the upright branches produce more flowers . It convert vegetative flushes into flower producing branches .
Fruiting – since  current season branch bears flowers and fruits regular pruning keep the thaiwan guava tree on continuous flowering …
Cost of cultivation
Seedlings cost – ( 666 plants * Rs.200 ) = Rs. 1,33,200
Land preparation and pit formation – Rs. 7000
Farmyard manure – 10 MT @ Rs.1000 per MT – Rs.10,000
Basal manure and fertilizers – Rs.12,000
Planting labour – Rs. 2000
Fertilizers – Rs.4000
Training and pruning cost – Rs.3000
Pest and disease management – Rs.10,000
Green manure seeds and incorporation – Rs.2500
Contingencies – Rs.2000
Total cost – Rs. 1,85,700
Drip irrigation system – Rs.40,000 per acre
Total cost – Rs.2,25,700
Second year cost
Farmyard manure+ fertilizers+ pruning + pest and disease management = Rs.30,000
Thrid year cost = Rs.45,000
Fourth year cost – Rs. 55,000
Fifth year cost – Rs. 60,000
Income for guava harvest and sales
First year – nil
Second year yield  – 4,000 kgs ( 4000 kgs *Rs. 50  = Rs. 2,00,000 )
Third year  yield -  8000 kgs ( 8000 kgs * Rs.50 = Rs.4,00,000 )
Fourth year yield – 14 ,000 kgs ( 12000 kgs * rs.50 = 7,00,000 )
Fifth year yield – 26,000 kgs ( 26,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 13,00,000 )

Expenditure for the first five years –  Rs.4.157 lac
Gross income for the first five years – Rs. 26.00 lac
Net income – Rs.21.84 lac
Average net income per year per acre – Rs.4.37 lac

Courtesy : Thanks Er.Narendra vizag for collecting first hand information from guava farmers on cost of cultivation and quality nursery








Mr.Joseph
As per your request for organic guava cultivation , I am posting few field pic of thaiwan guava cultivated in organic methods …It is just 9 months old and pruned twice and awaiting third light pruning before being allowed for production






Thanks for valuable information. Can someone say which is best source to buy
authentic Thaiwan variety plants?

There are hundreds of thousands of nurseries selling fruit seedlings as exotic …When asked for details they used to say it is thaiwan guava …
one thing  the farming community should understand about guava …Like hundreds of guava varieties being grown  in India , there in Thaiwan also many hundred of varieties are grown …The scientist choose only those promising guava varieties that look promising in terms of taste , nutrient value , yield , shape , color , resistant to pest and disease  and selection is an important  process in developing promising varieties
Against these standard criteria , there are many Taiwan guava varieties like Taiwanese guava, century guava , pearl guava , and lot more varieties
So it is up to the buyer and it is their responsibility to pick true to type guava varieties
some rich farmers are directly importing exotic guava from Thailand …

Hi RAMU,
That was an excellent article, thanks for your painstaking effort. I am from VIZAG area, very much confused to get the correct samplings of Taiwan Guava, if you have any idea or contacts of genuine nurseries, please do let me know.
Once again thanks a ton for a very informative article.

Thanks
Suresh.

Dear Mr.suresh

My native district in Tamilnadu , dindigul  is called the land of guava bcoz large area of land is cultivated under different varieties of guava , both traditional and exotic …
when I visited  one of the thaiwan guava fields during my tenure as horticulture officer, I was told single sapling cost is around Rs. 350-400 and it was imported as consignment of 20,000 seedlings directly from Thailand . Only few farmers were having thaiwan guava field . Exorbitant cost of thaiwan guava seedlings is prohibiting the guava farmers to buy Thaiwan guava .

I was also told that some other nurseries are selling thaiwan guava @ different prices say Rs.60, Rs.100, Rs.200, Rs.250 per saplings

However you can contact one Mr.Narendra who is an Engineer in oil and gas company and residing in Vizag( mobile number 9550753461) . He is also palnning for Thaiwan guava

But note one thing that thaiwan guava is feeding predominantly on organic nutrients rather than chemical nutrients . so 60:40 organic and inorganic nutrients combination will do best in Thaiwan guava

[quote="RAMU"]
Thaiwan guava is becoming popular every year among the guava farmers . The reason is regular fruiting character with two production season every year one from March to April and another from July August …
Another most important character of thaiwan guava is sweetiness of fruit . The high ascorbic acid content in the fruits makes this guava fruit internally acclaimed and most sought after fruit in the international market  fetching premium price for quality fruits … Each fruit weighs around 250 -300 grams . The foreign buyers prefer this size to bigger size .And the fruit looks light green in maturity
The thaiwan guava tree reaches the height of 2.5 to 3.0 Meters in average with canopy size of 2.0 to 2.5 Meter diameter
Planting season – one month before onset of monsoon in India …June – July
Planting pits – The pits are dug in the dimension of 2’ * 2’ * 2” BLD a month before planting and allowed the pits to cure until planting is done . Before the planting , the top soil dug out of each pit is mixed with 10 kgs of farm yard manure , 100 grams urea, 100 grams potassium and 2.0 kgs of super phosphate and  pit is filled upto 45 centimeters depth and thaiwan guava seedling is planted just in the centre of pit with graft union exposed from soil level inside the pit . The seeddlings must be planted 15-20 Cms down the general field surface inside the pit .
After the planting , the Bio fertilizers, bio pesticides and VAM fungal culture  that are mixed together with powdered farmyard manure and neem cake are applied @ 250- 500 grams to each pit and watered …
Spacing of the plants – 3.0 Meter by 2.0 meter row to row and plant to plant spacing is adopted for high yield of thaiwan guava . At this spacing 666 plants are planted in an acre of land …
Mulching of guava trees – Mulching with coir pith waste provide excellent cover against hot sun and prevent weeds as well as water and nutrient loss thus enhance growth and fruits quality
Training and pruning of Thaiwan guava – When the plant reaches 75-80 cms high , cut back the plant to the height of 50-60 cms from the ground . This will stimulate the branching ( primary scaffold ) . when the side branch reaches 30-40 cms long growth , select 3 – 4 strong branches in such a way that the retained branches fan around the central stem like an umbrella and all other weak branches are removed . The retained branches are cut back to half the length say 20 cms long or just green immatured part of the branches are cut off retaining matured brown color twigs of each retained primary branches . And further branching is encouraged in each primary branches . The same procedure is applied here in pruning the secondary branches as done earlier in the primary branches and 2-3 secondary branches are allowed in each primary branches and thrid light pruning is done on each secondary branches to produce tertiary branches . This will shape thaiwan guava tree with excellent canopy that produce excellent flowers and fruits
Each tree has 3 primary branches and 2 secondary branches and 4 tertiary branches . So total no of branches in each tree is 3* 2 * 4 = 24 shoots that produce flowers
Each branch produce 3 fruits in ana average . so single plant produce 24 branches * 3 fruits = 72 fruits . Each fruit is weighing about average 250 grams per fruit
So total fruit weight per tree is 72 fruits * 0.250 kgs = 18 kgs
So 666 guava tree produces 666 plants * 18 kgs = 12.0 MT ( 11,988 kgs )
There are tow harvest . so annaul per acre yield of guava fruit is 24.0 MT
Each kg of thaiwan guava sells @ Rs. 50 in Indian market and Rs.150 in overseas market
So per acre income is 24,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 12.0 lacs in domestic markets
To obtain abov income following intervention is needed
As plant grows we need to increase soil organic carbon  to the level of atleast  2.0 % ( higher level of productivity is obtained in soil carbon level of 4.0 to 5.0 % )
Indian soil except hilly region is having very poor level of organic carbon say around 0.5 % . At this level of soil organic carbon , the soil remains less productive or simply sterile and produce less yield and poor fruit quality .
So to increase soil organic carbon we need to apply green manure or green leaf manure . During monsoon season sow 8-10 kgs of sunhemp seeds in the interrow spaces . This will in about 50-55 days give 6-8 MT of green bio mass . The plants are harvested and laid close to plants in rows along the guava plants and covered by soil . And if possible we can spray Urea + gypsum mix over the green matter and then cover by soil . This will escalate decomposition process faster . 6.0 MT of green mater will add 750-900 kgs of organic matter . Like wise you can add green matter in addition to 10-20 MT of farmyard manure for the first 2-3 years . If you do this for the first 3 years , the soil organic carbon level will increase by o.1- 0.2 % every year and will go beyond 1.0 % of total soil volume . There after you can add organic matter in the form of farmyard manure @ 20 kgs per tree , say 12 MT of farmyard manure .
By the time the guava plant attains the age of three years and are about to produce more flowers and fruits , the soil would have turned into highly productive growing/ supporting medium with lot of soil microbes that produce aminoacids that helps in better growth and yield of thaiwan guava .
Fertilizers –0. 460  kg nitrogen , 0.320  kg phosphorus and 0.3 kg potash per tree is needed per year
For 666 plants – grown up trees ( 5 th  year onwards )
Nitrogen – 666 *0.460 =306    kgs of nitrogen
Phosphorus – 666 *0.320  kgs =213  kgs
Potash – 666 * 0.300 kgs = 199.80 kgs
In terms of urea = 306 * 2.17 = 664 kgs urea
In terms of super phosphate = 213  kgs * 6.25= 1331 kgs
Interms of muriate of potash = 199.80 * 1.66 = 331.668
Urea = 664  kgs  ( single tree – 1.0 kg )
SSP = 1331 kgs ( single tree – 2.0 kgs )
MOP = 332 kgs ( single tree – 0.50 kgs )
For the first year
Urea – 200  grams per plant
SSP – 400 grams per plant
MOP – 100 grams per plant
Second year
Urea – 200 grams per plant
SSP – 800 grams per plant
Mop – 200 grams per plant
Third year
Urea – 600 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 1200 grams per plant
MoP- 300 grams per plant
Fourth year
Urea – 800 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 1600 grams per plant
MOP – 400 grams per plant
Fifth year
Urea- 1000 grams per plant
Super phosphate – 2000 grams per plant
MOP – 500 grams per plant
Farmyard manure
First year – 10 kgs per plant
Second year – 20 kgs per plant
Thrid year onwards – 30 kgs of per plant
Fourth year – 40 kgs per plant
Fifth year – 50 kgs per plant
Foliar spray for better fruit quality
ZnSO4 -0.25%  + FeSO4 -0.25%  +  MgSO4 0.25%  + Borax 0.1%
Preharvest spray of calcium nitrate @ 1% - three srpays during the period of fruit set to harvest
Bending – bending the upright branches produce more flowers . It convert vegetative flushes into flower producing branches .
Fruiting – since  current season branch bears flowers and fruits regular pruning keep the thaiwan guava tree on continuous flowering …
Cost of cultivation
Seedlings cost – ( 666 plants * Rs.200 ) = Rs. 1,33,200
Land preparation and pit formation – Rs. 7000
Farmyard manure – 10 MT @ Rs.1000 per MT – Rs.10,000
Basal manure and fertilizers – Rs.12,000
Planting labour – Rs. 2000
Fertilizers – Rs.4000
Training and pruning cost – Rs.3000
Pest and disease management – Rs.10,000
Green manure seeds and incorporation – Rs.2500
Contingencies – Rs.2000
Total cost – Rs. 1,85,700
Drip irrigation system – Rs.40,000 per acre
Total cost – Rs.2,25,700
Second year cost
Farmyard manure+ fertilizers+ pruning + pest and disease management = Rs.30,000
Thrid year cost = Rs.45,000
Fourth year cost – Rs. 55,000
Fifth year cost – Rs. 60,000
Income for guava harvest and sales
First year – nil
Second year yield  – 4,000 kgs ( 4000 kgs *Rs. 50  = Rs. 2,00,000 )
Third year  yield -  8000 kgs ( 8000 kgs * Rs.50 = Rs.4,00,000 )
Fourth year yield – 14 ,000 kgs ( 12000 kgs * rs.50 = 7,00,000 )
Fifth year yield – 26,000 kgs ( 26,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 13,00,000 )

Expenditure for the first five years –  Rs.4.157 lac
Gross income for the first five years – Rs. 26.00 lac
Net income – Rs.21.84 lac
Average net income per year per acre – Rs.4.37 lac

Courtesy : Thanks Er.Narendra vizag for collecting first hand information from guava farmers on cost of cultivation and quality nursery

Dear Ramu Sir,
Thanks for such a detailed write up.
I have couple of questions -

  • Is Taiwan guava suitable for cultivation in Hosur?
  • If yes, can you guide me where to get saplings.

Sridhar Mangalam

Sure Hosur climate supports Thaiwan guava cultivation
Guava grows well in Tropical climate that prevails between 23 degree northern latitude and 23 degree southern latitude either side of equator and also in subtropical climate

Hosur is Tropical dry climate denoting long dry season and short rainy season with average annual rainfall of around 800 mm and altitude little above 850 MSL with temperature range of 16-28 degree celsius ( maximum around 35 degree celsius in may and minimum ( 14 degree celsius ) and winter temperature rarely goes below 12 degree celsius

Where as guava grows well  in the temperature range of 14- 38 degree celsius with tolerance to drought to certain extent and strictly guava does not tolerate frost …

So Hosur definitely support Thaiwan guava cultivation with definite intervention in terms of improved cultivation practices like adding more organic manure say 15-20 MT of Farmyard manure or 10 MT of poultry manure per acre , Foliar spray of nutrient solution through rain gun and sufficient irrigation water
The reason for using rain gun is to improve microclimate around  the tree canopy besides foliar feeding of nurients , macro like Nitrogen and phosphorus and micronutrients like Zinc and boron etc

But I do not have any nursery address . If you want to know quality Thaiwan guava , you can contact one mr.Narendra vizag for your requirement

Hi Ramu Sir,
From consumer side ,can you describe how can we recognise this Guava in the market,what is extent of seeds in it ?

Dear Mr.Babu

Following matter  will explain your queries

"Taiwan guavas come in white, red, and yellow flesh varieties, and in main production of the greatest variety, largest size, and largest volume of guavas belongs to the white flesh varieties.

Each kind of Taiwan guavas has its characteristic; referred to as the full moon, the pear guava is remarkable for its thick, crispy flesh and flavorful aroma; the white guava is known for its clear, shiny peel and refreshing taste; the Thai guava for its low sugar levels and crisp texture; the thick, crispy Crystal guava; and in recent years, the pearl guava, Taiwan breeding variety, for its sweet, aromatic flavor and supple texture. All varieties of guavas produced in Taiwan are incredibly well received in the marketplace by consumers.

The Pearl guava is the most exporting variety, its shape is round, oval, or pear-shaped. Except the while flesh varieties,  export quality  red flesh variety in recently years; the rainbow guava is main variety, its shape is similar to the pearl guava with green skin, and crispy taste, but the inside red flesh.   

For a delectably juicy, sweet, and tender guava that practically melts in your mouth, Taiwan’s guavas have no comparison, overwhelmingly meeting consumer preferences in a competitive international fruit marketplace." Thaiwan guava fruit carries less and soft seeds .

Regards