Teak Information Thread

AVAILABILITY OF PLANTING MATERIALS
Teak plants can be raised using either seeds or vegetative tissues (stumps, branch cuttings etc.). Plants raised from seeds collected at random tend to show fairly wide variability in growth, while vegetative propagation using cuttings and tissue culture ensures production of uniform planting materials of desired qualities. However, seeds are very im- portant to maintain a broad genetic base. To obtain fairly uniform planting ma- terials from seeds, seedling or clonal seed orchards of good-quality trees have to be raised for seed collection.
The large variation in growth condi- tions within the natural range of teak suggests that there is a likelihood of substantial genetic variability among provenances. Furthermore, the long- term cultivation of teak in regions out- side its endemic area (e.g. in Java, Indo- nesia) suggests the possible existence of land races that are specifically adapted to the regions to which teak has been introduced.
To examine these questions, an inter- national series of provenance trials was established (Keiding, Wellendorf and Lauridsen, 1986; Kjaer, Lauridsen and Wellendorf, 1995; Kjaer and Foster, 1996). These trials showed that, in gen- eral, local seed sources should be pre- ferred when teak is established within the area of its natural distribution (White, 1991). Although local sources did not always give the fastest growth rates, they consistently gave good per- formance relative to seedlots intro- duced from elsewhere.
In contrast, for regions outside the natural range of teak, local seedlots were sometimes very poor for some charac- ters of commercial significance and were thus unsuitable for use in devel- oping commercial-scale plantations. Of particular interest, however, was the broad adaptation of provenances from southern India and Indonesia, which exhibited good survival, growth rates and form.
At present, planting material of the desired quality and of known genetic source is not available in sufficient quantity. There is significant demand for good-quality planting stock for plantation programmes not only in Malaysia, but also in the Philippines, Viet Nam, Thailand, Myanmar, Indo- nesia and India.
Plant stocks currently being used for the Malaysian plantation programmes principally originate from local uniden- tified sources or from Thailand. There is no accreditation to ensure that the material comes from a reliable source of good-quality germplasm or, indeed, from the source named by the supplier. This presents a risk for plantation man- agers. FRIM is currently working with some reliable commercial nurseries and plant propagators to produce large enough quantities of high-quality plants to meet Malaysia’s needs.

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History of Teak Plantations

Apart from the introduction of teak in Java, Indonesia, the first teak plantation was started in 1680 in Sri Lanka. Teak planting in India began in the 1840s and increased to significant levels from 1865 onwards. Teak plantations using the “taungya” method, in which a forest crop is established in temporary association with agricultural crops, were initiated in Myanmar in 1856 and in Indonesia around 1880.

Teak was first introduced outside Asia in Nigeria in 1902 (Horne, 1966), with seed first from India and subsequently from Myanmar. Planting in what is now eastern Ghana (formerly Togoland) started around 1905 (Kadambi, 1972). A small plantation of teak was established in Côte d’Ivoire in 1929 from plantation-grown seeds obtained from Togoland.

The first teak plantation in tropical America was established in Trinidad and Tobago in 1913 (Keogh, 1979) with seed from Myanmar. Planting of teak in Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica started between 1927 and 1929.

Statistics on the historical progress of teak plantation establishment are incomplete, but it is clear that up to 1950 the major area under teak plantation was in Java, Indonesia, with about 300 000 ha. There was a gradual increase in the area of teak plantations through the 1950s and 1960s to an estimated 900 000 ha in 1970 (Kadambi, 1972; Tewari, 1992). The pace of teak planting further accelerated in the late 1970s, mainly as a result of financial support provided by external donor agencies. The total area of teak plantation increased to 1.7 million ha in 1980 (Pandey, 1983) and 2.2 million ha in 1990 (FAO, 1995). More than 90 percent of the 1990 total was located in Asia.

In Myanmar, the area of teak plantations, the first of which may have been established about the year 1700, is estimated to be 139,000 ha, making plantations an important supplement to supplies from native forests.

Establishment of plantations in India commenced in 1842. From that year until 1862, more than 1 million teak plants were raised for plantation development. The area planted is now about 980,000 ha.

In Thailand, pioneer plantations of teak were established from 1906, and teak plantations currently cover approximately 159,000 ha. Thailand has a very heavy dependence on imports of plantation-grown teak for its rapidly growing export-oriented furniture manufacturing industry. This industry employs approximately 400,000 people, is responsible for export earnings of approximately US$400 million and since 1945, in conjunction with Scandinavian designs and manufacturing techniques, has done much to popularize teak furniture on a global basis.

Teak plantations in Indonesia are largely located in Java and currently exceed 700,000 ha. Teak was probably introduced into Java in the fourteenth century, although some reports suggest that its introduction may have been as early as the seventh century. Harvests from Javanese teak plantations today support a rapidly expanding furniture manufacturing industry, the products of which are increasingly directed to export markets. Production of teak occurs in two sectors: one is a free market and the other is controlled by a State enterprise company, Perum Perhutani. Perhutani’s teak production and processing activities are well organized and extensive, involving the provision of planting stock, consumable inputs such as fertilizers, and specific advice to assist landholders with the establishment and management of their teak plantations. In return for these inputs, Perhutani is granted the rights to the logs harvested from the areas concerned. Management of teak plantations in Java, Indonesia, is mostly controlled by Perum Perhutani, a State enterprise company, which assists forest farmers in return for the rights to the logs harvested from the areas concerned.

Cultivation of teak in Malaysia is a relatively new undertaking. The total areas planted in peninsular Malaysia and Sabah are estimated to be approximately 2,000 ha each (Asian Timber, 1996; Tee, 1995). Until recently, it was widely believed that teak grew best in the drier states in the north of peninsular Malaysia and it was not promoted in other parts of the country which are hotter and wetter. However, results from those areas now indicate that they are equally suited to the production of teak, and this has generated considerable interest in the establishment of teak plantations on a large scale. The establishment of teak plantations in Malaysia is being actively promoted by the Department of Forestry, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), the Federal Land Development Authorities, other government agencies and the private sector. These commercial planting programs aim to achieve mean annual increments of 8 m3 or more per hectare per year. Developments are occurring on an industrial plantation scale (>100 ha) as well as on small holdings. Small holder planting is being vigorously promoted as an enterprise requiring low labor inputs and offering potentially high returns.

Elsewhere in Asia, teak has been established in Bangladesh (~73,000 ha), Sri Lanka (~38,000 ha), China (~9,000 ha), the Philippines (~8,000 ha), the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (~3,000 ha), Nepal (~2,000 ha) and Viet Nam (~1,500 ha).

In Africa, teak has been established in plantations in Nigeria (~70,000 ha), Côte d’Ivoire (~52,000 ha), Sierra Leone, the United Republic of Tanzania (~3,000 ha) and Togo (~4,500 ha). Plantations of teak are also widespread in the tropical Americas, where it was introduced early in the twentieth century. Teak plantations now cover an estimated 33,000 ha, spread mainly across Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, Panama, El Salvador, Colombia, Guatemala, Venezuela and Ecuador.

In the Pacific region, teak was introduced by the Germans to Papua New Guinea in the early 1900s and some 3 500 ha of plantations were subsequently established. Plantation teak was also introduced to Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Teak has also been planted in northern Australia at trial levels.

Although it is widely planted, plantation-grown teak has not, until recently, had a significant impact on supplies of industrial round-wood in the global timber trade except for some short-term log exports from Papua New Guinea and Ecuador.

1 The source for all plantation area figures in this section is FAO, unpublished data.

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Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months

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MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
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Soil Conditions and Growth of Teak in Successive Rotations in Kerala State, India

Teak plantations occupy an area of about 69,000 ha in Kerala, of which about 64 per cent is in first rotation and the remaining, in second and third rotations. A study was carried out in teak plantations of first, second and third rotations in Nilambur, Kerala to evaluate the soil conditions and the growth of teak in successive rotations. Twenty-four plantations of 8-17 years age groups were selected. Out of these, six plantations were in the first, 10 in the second and eight in the third rotations. In each plantation, 26, 16 and 17 temporary sample plots ( 20 m x 20 m) were laid out in the first, second and third rotations, respectively, at the rate of one plot per 10 ha of plantation. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm layers and analysed. The gbh of all trees in the plots was recorded, while the height was measured on a subsample of trees within each plot. Soil analyses revealed that the soils were sandy loam in the surface and loam in the deeper layers in the first rotation and sandy loam and loam in all layers in the second and third rotations, respectively. The soils were medium acid in all rotations, but a decrease in acidity was seen in successive rotations. Organic carbon contents were highest in the first, while exchangeable bases remained almost same in the three rotations. Total N, available K, Ca and Mg were lowest in the second rotation.

Among the 11 soil properties studied, the discriminant analysis revealed that there was significant decline in soil fertility with change in rotation. Tree height differed significantly between rotations while there was no significant difference in the gbh of trees. Only 14 per cent of variation in tree height could be explained by the soil properties, as height growth is also controlled by a host of other factors. The differences in site index between rotations were found to be non-significant and this could be due to the high variation in site index within rotation. The study suggests the need for careful management of the soil

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3.6 Insects, Pests and Diseases

Teak defoliator & skeletoniser (Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis) cause extensive damage to young plantations. Root rot due to Polyporous zonalis is also common in plantation. Pink disease fungus causes cankers and bark flaking. Powdery mildew caused by Olivea tectonae & Uncinula tectonae leads to premature defoliation. It is thus necessary to undertake prophylactic and control measures to ensure good health of the crops. Fresh leaf extracts of Calotropis procera, Datura metal and Azadirachta indica were found to be most effective against teak skeletonizer. This method is of immense importance in the insect, pest control considering its harmless and pollution free implications on the environment further avoiding the operational and residual hazards that involve in the use of organic and inorganic insecticides.

3.7 Harvesting, yield & Returns

The highest growth under plantation condition in India was seen in the Indo-Gangetic belt of Haldwani Division. At 20 years of age the height growth was 23.1m and diameter was 28.7 cm. From the general yield table in the first quality teak at 20 years of age, the average diameter is 27.2 cm and average height is 23.2m. The number of trees per acre is 102. The total yield of stem timber is 28.04 m3; that means on an average a tree on first quality site at 20 years of age under natural conditions of growth will yield around 0.283 m3 of timber on good sites. At the best we may expect a tree to produce a maximum of 0.60 m3 of timber in 20 years under best conditions of intensive management and there could be a maximum of 100 trees per acre.

It is said that plantation teak grows slowly after an age of 15 years and besides the strength is not as good as in case of naturally grown teak.

It is generally seen that the effect of irrigation and fertiliser application in most tree species is very fast initially and thereafter it slows down. Therefore, the initial response of fast growth which is being seen in the young plantation will not hold on for a long time. Under natural conditions the best growth has been seen on alluvial sites where the soils are very deep and moist, but not wet (Teak is very sensitive to poor drainage).

Normally, an irrigated plantation has been assumed to attain a growth in 20 years which is attained by a rainfed plantation in 25 years.

It takes roughly 20-30 years to produce reasonably good quality timber.

However, due to large market demand for teak, even the poles and small timber fetch good price. First thinning in 7th / 8th year and second thinning in 13th / 14th year may provide good number of poles and small timber to pay back the bank loan. In the final harvest by 20th year each tree can produce quality timber ranging from 7-10 cft. The yield and income are based on a conservative estimate.

3.8 Marketing of Timber

Teak is the most important commercial timber tree of India specially for furniture making. The very name of the tree translates into Carpenters Pride and is one of the most sought after timber in Indian market, hence no problem is envisaged in marketing by the farmers. Infact many of the timbers in Indian retail market is sold in the name of teak which are not teak. It is presumed that inspite of large number of plantations raised by the private companies the market for teak timber will remain evergreen. Today most of the teak timber available in the market is only of sapwood, the heart wood is rarely seen.

NB: Fuelwood in the form of lops & tops will be consumed locally by the farmer.

  • Assumed Girth - 60 cm and Height - 13 m
    ** Assumed Girth - 75 cm & Height - 14 m

4.0 Cost of cultivation

The cost of cultivation will depend upon the extent of the area to be planted. The cost of cultivation for a unit area of one ha. at an espacement of 2m x 2m . i.e. 2500 plants/ ha. has been worked for 7 years which is shown in the Annexure - I.

5.0 Financial Analysis

The financial analysis with the above parameters of the investment cost and yield has been done. The BCR and IRR works out to 1.46 : 1 and 23.57 % respectively.

6.0 Lending terms and conditions

6.1 Margin Money

The beneficiaries may contribute towards down payment ranging from 5 to 25% depending upon their category, i.e., small and other farmers in accordance with NABARD’s norms. Beneficiary’s own labour can also be taken as his contribution towards the margin money requirement. In the current model margin money of 10 % has been considered.

6.2 Interest Rate

The rate of interest on refinance from NABARD will be as per the circulars issued by NABARD from time to time. The rate of interest to be charged to the ultimate borrowers would be decided by the financing banks. Interest rate of 12 % per annum has been considered for calculation of financial parameters.

6.3 Repayment of Loan

The entire loan amount with interest can be repaid at the end of 7 years from planting. However, as there is no income generation during the first six years, the interest have to be deferred for first six years

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BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

Teak ( Tectona grandis ) is the most prized timber tree of India. It can be grown in almost every part of the country except the dry western zone, although the best teak forests develop in well drained deep alluvial soil. Teak timber fetches very high price because of its grain, colour and strength. Hence teak plantations have been raised for industrial purposes since long. Infact in India regular teak plantations were started as early as in the year 1842. Mr. Chatu Menon of Malabar in Kerala is considered to be the father of Indian Teak Plantations. Between the year 1842 - 1862 he had raised more than a million teak trees. The best quality teak growing areas in India are in the central parts of the country, hence the brand name CP Teak was assigned to the top quality teak produced from the present state of Madhya Pradesh.

  1. Distribution

The distribution of teak is largely determined by climate, geology and soil. Teak occurs naturally in portions of India, Burma, Laos, Indonesia (mainly Java) and Thailand. Teak has also been introduced in countries like Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Ivory coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, West Indies, Honduras and Panama.

In India, it is naturally distributed mainly in the peninsular region, but has also been planted in non-traditional areas in northern and north eastern states. It is one of the most important hardwoods of the world and used for furniture, cabinet making, various grades of plywood, paneling, all types of construction, poles, piles, ship building and other purposes.

  1. Agro-climatic requirements

Teak prefers moist, warm tropical climate. It can withstand extremes of temperature, but maximum & minimum shade temperatures of 39- 44oC and 13 - 17oC respectively are the most favourable for its growth. It grows well in rainfall zone of 1200-2500 mm. It prefers a deep, fertile, well-drained soil. The sandy soil is considered to be the best soil texture for this tree. It fails to grow in the soil with pH below 6.5.

3.1 Planting units

The number of plants to be planted by each farmer will depend upon extent of area and type of planting e.g. block or bund planting. The optimum spacing for block planting is 2 x 2 m accommodating 2500 plants per ha. On similar basis, the spacing of plants can be kept at 2 m in rows, in bund plantations. The minimum planting area for block plantation should be 0.2 ha or 500 trees per unit.

3.2 Nursery technology

Teak fruit /seed bears a thick, hard and fleshy cover of mesocarp. The mesocarp is responsible for inhibition of seed germination. Teak fruits are therefore, subjected to various treatment methods before being sown in the nursery beds to get high germination percentage. Various methods of pre-treatment have been developed and are traditionally in practice; the simplest one being alternate soaking & drying. In pit method, fruit mesocarp is subjected to decay by burying them in pits with cowdung slurry for three weeks. Acid treatment to burn mesocarp is another method. Nowadays a mechanical simple device has been evolved, a prototype-II. It is a simple machine, on the pattern of an ordinary flour-mill, and very easy to handle.

The plants are raised by sowing fruits in the nursery beds. Approximately 2000 - 3000 fruits (1 - 4 seeds per fruit) weigh 1 kg. Fruit treatment by alternate soaking and drying in open bed for 3 weeks hastens germination. Optimum sowing time is from April to May. Germination takes place within 30 - 40 days. Germination percentage varies from 60 - 80 . Irrigation 2 - 3 times a day initially is necessary. Seedlings when 12 - 15 month old with collar diameter of about 2.5 to 4.0 cm. are used for preparation of stumps for planting.

3.3 Planting Stocks

It is advisable to raise nursery seedlings after collecting fruits only from plus trees i.e., phenotypically selected superior trees. In olden days teak fruits used to be collected from any easily available tree, but nowadays with awareness of genetic gain from phenotypic selections, fruits are collected from genetically superior plus trees. Hence fruits should be obtained from Forest Departments / or Forest Development Corporations. For eg., Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra (FDCM) has established seed orchards where genetically improved quality seeds are produced. Fruits obtained from such seed orchards will give better yield. One must be aware that in case of teak plantations any mistake in selection of planting stock may give a negative impact on the plantation which would be known after 10 years or more. So, selection of planting stock is the most important criterion in raising forestry plantations especially teak

3.4 Planting Methods

Teak can be planted at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m or 3m x 3m espacement. It can also be raised along with agricultural crops at a spacing of 4m x 4m or 5m x 5m.
Plough lands thoroughly and level it off. Mark the areas for pit digging by alignment and staking.
Dig pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm sizes. Refill the soil after seasoning and mixing with Farm Yard Manure and insecticides. On poor gravely sites, replace the pit soil by good soil.
Use pre sprouted stumps or polypots for planting.
Best planting season is monsoon; preferably after the first shower.
Firm up the soil after planting and apply irrigation wherever necessary.
Apply 100 g of fertiliser in pit at the time of planting and thereafter in split doses or as per the fertility status of soil.
Carry out weeding operations regularly. Weeding may be carried out @ 3 operations in the first year, 2 operations in second year and one operation in the third year.
Carry out soil working periodically for better growth of plants. One working in the Ist year and two workings in 2nd and 3rd year may be adequate.
Debudding in the initial years may be done to improve the quality of timber.
Undertake prophylactic and control measures for protection of plants from insects/pests and diseases to ensure good health of the crop.

3.5 Irrigation

Study has revealed that, irrigation during stress period boosts the growth of the plants. Irrigation should be followed by weeding (3,2,1) and adequate soil working. Two doses of fertiliser (in the month of August & September) @ 50 gm per plant of NPK (15:15:15) may be provided every year upto three years. By increasing the inputs of irrigation and frequent thinning, it is possible to increase the rate of diameter growth. The increase in diameter growth is, however, dependent on increasing the size of the crown i.e. decrease in the number of trees per acre. In other words, one can have either lesser no. of trees of higher girth or larger number of trees of lower girth. It has been observed that teak trees grown under irrigated condition grew faster but the sapwood content of trees increased, the wood became weak and wind damage became quite serious. A phenomenon of water blisters may also develop in teak trees grown under irrigated conditions. Such trees may appear quite healthy from outside but the inner heartwood may develop rot due to storage of excess water that increases the spread of fungi which may further damage the tree.

Many people claim that, teak grown with fertiliser and irrigation give excellent result. Drip irrigation will induce surface roots and epicormic branching. Nitrogen fertilisers will increase the nitrogen content of leaves. Initially larger leaves will increase photosynthesis and faster growth. By about five years the dreaded defoliators and skeletoniser Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis would attack these plantations. These will drastically reduce the photosynthesising leaf surface. These insects have about 14 life cycles in a year. The control through insecticides is not, therefore, possible. Once the trees are established they generally donot respond significantly to irrigation and fertilisers.

NABARD WILL GIVE LOAN TO THE FARMERS WHO ARE INTERESTED.
THEY WILL GIVE LOAN ON STUMP BASED PLANTATION,

NO USE TO THE FARMERS WITH STUMP PLANTATION

SO YOU PLEASE GO FOR TISSUE CULTURE TEAK PLANTATION.

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MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

TYPES OF AVAILABLE TEAK WOOD AND
PRICE RANGE IN INDIAN TIMBER MARKET

K.M. BhatandP.K.Thulaidas
Forest Utilisation Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi-680 653, Thrissur, Kerala, India, Email: kmbhat@kfri.org

Nilambur (Malabar) teak

• Grows fast, yields larger log dimensions
• Straight grain with golden yellowish brown colour, often with darker steaks
• Reputed in the trade for ship building and furniture/cabinets

West African teak

• Wood with black streaks and wavy or twisted grain
• Wood figure is mostly inferior to that of Asian teak

South and Central American teak

• Wood lighter in colour
• Fetches lower price due to small dimen-
sional log and less heartwood
Did you know ?
A variety of teak timbers is noted in Indian market depending on the source of supply as originated from various geographic locations or countries. The recent timber survey re- corded the following types timbers mainly due to variations in log size wood colour/grain and growth rate/rotation age. The price trends of teak timber showed continued increase in India over the decades of later half of 20th century and the forecasts for the year 2015 indicate a range of Indian Rupees of 71,000- 90,000 (US $ 1480-1850) per Cu.m depend- ing on the girth class (Krishnankutty 2001).

The present market price range for round wood (Cu.m) in Indian Rupees and US $ is shown below:

Home garden teak: 26842-38841 (US$ 597- 863)
Myanmar (Burma teak): 44138-51200 (US$ 980-1138)
Columbian teak: 21186-24717 (US$ 470-549) Ghana teak: 21186-28248 (US$ 470-628) Brazilian teak:
Benin teak-Log:
Togo teak- Log:
Costa Rican teak (class II/III pole size logs) Equador teak (class II/III pole sized logs) Teak, Ivory Coast:

Types Teakwood

Adilabad teak

• Grows in Rajulmaddugu locality of An-
dhraPradesh
• Rose coloured heartwood, attractive surface,fetches high price
Central province teak (CPT)
• Slow grown wood with close grain from drier areas of central India
• Deeper colour, twisted or wavy grain give betterappearance and fetches higher price

Dandeli (North Kanara) teak

• Slow grown, close grained
• Darker in

Godhavari teak

Home garden/farm grown teak
• Home garden teak has more defects like bends andknots lowering timber value.
• Wood from dry sites has darker golden
brown colour with black streaks, making it more attractive in appearance.
• Wood from wet sites has paler colour affecting adversely the price of the tim- ber.
• Wood from homesteads of wet sites is • more susceptible to brown rot fungi al- though no significant differences exists with respect to white rot fungi among the home garden and plantation grown tim- bers.
In South America, FOB price range is USD130-USD230 as against USD200- USD300 in West Africa and US 140-240 in Asia (India) depending on quality (colour, grain, etc), diameter and length.
• Higher natural durability of teak wood from drier locality h is reflected in higher extractive contents with darker colour t

Konni teak

• Slow grown wood with close grain and darker colour
• Stronger than Nilambur teak
Myanmar (Burma) teak
• Slow grown wood from mostly from natu- ral growth
• Close grain with darker colour
• Fetches high price in international trade
• With an investment of US $10,000 per hectare, teak plantation can give an aver- age return of about US Dollars 320,000 in 25 years from the sale of roundwood at stump/plantation site – This means 32 times returns in 25 years, equivalent to doubling investment in every 5 years ( Centeno 1996).
• The central part of India (with Site Quality II), the best Internal Rate of Returns (IRRs) can be expected from 25-year rotations although for higher Net Present Value(NPV) the rotations need to be longer (Rawat and Negi 1980).
Even with very low input management, teak plantations are profitable if planted in suitable sites (Chundamannil 1998).

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MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

ABOUT TEAK: KING OF WOOD
Article 2

A Brief note on teak in Madhya Pradesh state

Madhya Pradesh the heart land of India has 443446 sq km of geographical area in that total forest cover is 13164 sq km having teak forest area is 23973 sq km of 17.70% of total forest area. The forest area is managed sustainably according to scientifically prepared working plants. This produces 0.25 million cubic meters of teak timber annually.

In Madhya Pradesh teak forest is present in the state which is predominantly distributed in southern and central part of Madhya Pradesh. Though teak is found in dry and hot area also but its growth is luxuriant in moist tropical climate. It is found rainfall range between 700mm to 2500mm.

In Madhya Pradesh teak is generally planted with root shoot material in forest area initially at a spacing of 2 x 2 mt. Teak is conventional planted at this close spacing to enhance initial height growth.

Teak plantation in Madhya Pradesh dates back to 1891 when in North Raipur division, a forest guard named Mani ram on his own initiative planted 8 hectares with teak. In Madhya Pradesh following of national commission on agricultural recommendations after 1976 the forest development corporation of Madhya Pradesh was formed and large scale teak plantations were taken up in 12 districts.

The Madhya Pradesh forest department with their experience on practicing mainly in teak plantations stating that, teak plantations with superior planting material of clonal origin, used with higher input of fertilizer, soil working and irrigation, can produce very good growth rate. However such efforts can maximize the benefit only if teak is planted as a pure crop.

In the year 1975 the Madhya Pradesh forest development corporation was formed to take up wide scale of teak plantations in the forest areas. Regular planting up operations begin in the year 1976. By the time the forest department of Madhya Pradesh planted around 42000 hectares of teak plantations in the forest areas. The Madhya Pradesh forest development corporations added another 1.2 lakh hectare till 1995. Now the forest development corporation is taking degraded teak and miscellaneous forests for stump planting in the gaps.

In other teak forest of the state the conversion to uniform system has been completely discontinued in the year 1980. Such areas, which were previously worked under this system, were put under the selection and selection cum improvement felling system. Other areas are worked under coppice with reserves system. Now, most of the forest areas either in selection cum improvement or in coppice system, natural regeneration is woefully deficient.

Madhya Pradesh forest Development Corporation is engaged enriching the forest of the state since its inception. The present project in operation is a teak plantation project I. The basic objective of this commercial project is to raise valuable teak forest in degraded forests of Madhya Pradesh. The strategy adopted under this project is to apply the technology of supplementary regeneration of teak in the eco-type forests of the state.

Firstly the government forest land constitutes the project site. So no cost of land has been computed in the economic valuation of the project. Secondly the planting method has been evolved in such a manner that only teak saplings or stumps will be planted in the existing gaps in the degraded forests. The available root stocks in the degraded forests are taken advantage of. Thirdly the rotation adopted in the project is the rotation of the maximum volume production.

In Madhya Pradesh most of the private farmers are showing interest in raising of plantations with teak. So far the Madhya Pradesh forest department and also the private farmers in the state is producing seed origin stump or bag plants of teak and supplying them to the farmers for planting purpose.

CONCLUSION OF MOTHER BIOTECH,BANGALORE

The Madhya Pradesh forest department is still practicing to raise teak plantations with seed origin based prepared teak stumps. The Madhya Pradesh forest department have full knowledge and staff in preparing of clonal teak plants to be prepared through macro propagation like budding i.e., collect the vegetative material from selected mother plants (CPT’s) of teak. Not only by the forest department of Madhya Pradesh, but also many research wings saying that the benefits from the teak plantations, what were planted with clonal teak rammets give 4 times benefits than planting with seed origin prepared teak stumps. The Madhya Pradesh forest department is raising teak plantations with teak stumps, and also supplying the teak stumps to the public to plant them in their private lands of the farmers. With these plantations the forest department of Madhya Pradesh and also the private farmers are not obtaining their expected yield, and losing full financial benefits.

If we can raise plantations with clonal teak tissue culture plants, through collect the vegetative material from selected CPT’s(mother plants) of the Madhya Pradesh forest department, they can be 100% possible to get expected yield in reducing the rotation period of the plantations. But, so far, although the Madhya Pradesh forest department have good knowledge in this connection, why the Madhya Pradesh forest department is not implementing this technique, that to prepare clonal teak tissue culture plants for raising teak plantations.

It is proved that the Madhya Pradesh forest department or any other wing of the state is not in a position to prepare the clonal teak tissue culture plants, we the MOTHER BIOTECH ,BANGALOREwill make possible to produce the clonal teak tissue culture plants, keeping in view of wealth of private teak farmers of Madhya Pradesh, and also for raising plantations in Madhya Pradesh forest department VSS areas which is most useful for their self sustain.

Our MOTHER BIOTECH ,BANGALORE, achievements are with the details as follows:

We are one and only high yielding tissue culture teak producers across the Globe.

Hello Madam/Sir,

  1. Other than water logging soils are suitable for teak
  2. For block plantation ideal spacing is 10 feet x 10 feet whereas in border plantation spacing is 6 feet in between two plants. Pit size is 45 cm dia and 45 cm depth.
  3. Farm yard manure or vermi compost is the best nutrient while planting time 2 kg for each pit.
  4. Drip irrigation is suitable for teak. In case of manual watering, it should be done based on plant age. For 1 month old plant (up to 1 month) - daily watering, for 4 months old plant - once for every 4 days and for 8 months old plant - once for every 10 days
  5. Tissue culture teak plants r having adventitious root system.
    In India we are producing 7 breeders of tissue culture teak , which r suitable for all over INDIA and another 120 countries in the WORLD. In this mail i have sent detailed information regarding tissue culture of teak plants. If interested please make a call or send e mail to share our views
    • clone name: APNBV … suitable for the rain fall in between 1150-1250mm
    • clone name: APSBC … suitable for the rain fall in between 1150-1250 mm
    • clone name: APNDG … suitable for the rain fall in between 500-650 mm
    • clone name : APNPMP 1 & APNPMP 2 … suitable the rain fall in between 1250-1450 mm
    • clone name : TELI … suitable for the rain fall in between 450-550 mm
    • clone name : SHNM … suitable for the rain fall in between 500-650 mm

BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

COLOUR MEASUREMENT
Colour measurements were performed on the longitudinal-radial and longitudinal-tangential faces of the clear wood samples at 12 % moisture content. The measurements were recorded using a portable spectrocolorimeter Microflash Datacolor at ambient temperature and humidity. A sensor head diameter of 6 mm, illuminant D65 (representing average daylight), and 10° standard observer were the conditions used to measure the wood colour (Hunter and Harold 1987). On each of the 100 mm long test samples 8 measurement points were recorded whilst 4 measurement points were recorded on the 50 mm long test samples. The CIELAB colour parameters L*, a* and b* which respectively denote lightness/darkness, redness/greenness and yellowness/blueness were obtained directly from the measurements. The colour measurements in each test sample were made avoiding knots and other defects and averaged to one recording.
SOIL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldhal method while organic matter and organic carbon were determined according to Walkey and Black (1934). Concentrations of exchangeable cations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and soil pH was determined with a pH meter using both water and calcium chloride solutions.

We are one and only tissue culture teak producers in India and abroad.
For tissue culture teak plants

Please contact
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

The colour of teak wood from plantations in Ghana was characterized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L* a* b* colour measurement system in order to study the variations of wood colour parameters (lightness-darkness, redness-greenness and yellowness-blueness), among the different ecological zones. Teak trees totaling 46 were felled from 8 different plantation stands in four different ecological zones of Ghana (moist semi-deciduous forest, MSDF; dry semi-deciduous forest, DSDF; transition savanna forest; and savanna forest). Colour measurements were made on strips obtained from logs cut from the felled trees. Chemical analyses were performed on soil samples obtained from the rooting zones of the teak trees. Both environmental and tree age effects on colour were observed. However, environmental factors had a stronger effect on the colour of teak heartwood than the stand age. Although there were no significant differences between teak wood colour in moist semi-deciduous forest and transition savanna forest on one hand, and dry semi-deciduous forest and savanna forest on the other hand, in general, environment seemed to be an important factor, with teak wood colour being relatively darker in wetter areas than drier ones. Wood colour parameters showed differing relationships with soil chemical properties ranging from no relation through weak to moderate relations. For instance, soil pH decreased moderately with decreasing L* values (increasing darkness), indicating some evidence that teak wood colour may be predicted from soil pH. However, there was very little evidence that teak wood colour could be predicted from soil exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+). The range of observed site quality was rather limited. Nevertheless, richer plantation sites showed a tendency toward darker and less red heartwood.

Regards
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+91 9908286565

I am writing this article just to create awareness among farmers and tree lovers.In India you can see more than 1,50,000 nurseries.All of them are selling teak stumps to the farmers. Stump production cost is only Rp 0.50 . But they are selling at the rate of Rs 40 or Rs 50 or RS 60 Per plant based on their quantity .But they themselves saying that their plants are tissue culture teak plants. Do not cheat farmers.Most of the farmers are uneducated.Always farmers have been good asset to mother India.All state governments and also union territories in India they are supplying teak stumps to the farmers on free of cost.some of them supplying on nominal cost by showing xerox copies of their land documents.

In India all state government (forest department) employees working for government,not for the farmers benefit .Their main aim is to increase greenery all over India.I am strongly saying that you have to work for the farmers benefit,not for your benefit.

You please give good and high yielding plants to the farmers. Work for their golden future.

we are one and only high yielding tissue culture teak plants producers in India and Abroad .you can get more than 35 CFT of wood from each plant with in 17 years.present 1CFT rate is Rs 2800 to 3500

THERE IS VISIBLE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAK STUMP AND TISSUE CULTURE TEAK PLANT.THINK ONCE AND DO BEST THINGS.I AM ATTACHING ONE ATTACHMENT TO THIS THREAD PLEASE LOOK IN.

BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH LABORATORIES INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471
+919908286565

Olivea tectonae (rust stem and leaf); Phyllactinia guttata and Uncinula tectonae (mildew); Cercopora tectonae (leaf spot); Nectria haematococca (stem canker); Corticium salmonicolor (pink disease); Phomopsis tectonae in combination with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (leaf spots); Pseudomonas tectonae and P. tectonae (wilt); Fusarium oxyporum (damp.off); Armillariella mellea (root rot); Helicobasidium compactum, Phellinus noxius, Rigidoporus lignous, R. zonalis and Peniophora rhizomorpho-sulphurea (butt rot); Pellinus noxius, P. lamaoensis, Ustulina deusta, Polyporus rubidus, Ganoderma applanatum and R. zonalis (heart rots); Cossus cadambae (trunk borer); Phialophora richardsiae (die-back of trees); Dendrophthoe falcata

To avoid diseases in teak please go for tissue culture teak

Further details contact
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

You can’t see root rot disease in tissue culture raised teak plantations

For high yielding tissue culture teak plantations contact

BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

Pruning regimens IN STUMP TEAK PLANTATIONS

Although teak is an established high-value tree for commercial planting, the resulting
timber may not produce the expected quality and yield (Tze 1999). Pruning has been a
common, though empirically developed, silvicultural technique used to obtain high quality
timber (Hubert and Courrand 1988). Knots are widely considered as the most determinant
defect for wood quality classification; to the point of influencing the origin and magnitude
of other defects such as pith eccentricity, stem-form deviation from the geometric cylinder
shape, and bending (Rosso and Ninin 1998).
International grading rules have strict standards for classifying high-quality timber,
including the appearance of knots (number, frequency, diameter, sound or unsound). Yield
and market prices decrease considerably for trees without pruning interventions, since
lumber must be almost free of knots in order to be sold at attractive prices. For instance,
international grading rules do not allow the presence of knots on timber wood of “special”
grade. For first quality or grade 1, the permissible amount of knots is one per linear meter,
with a maximum diameter of 1.25 cm. For the lowest grade within international standards
(grade 3), a total of three knots per linear meter with a maximum of 3.81 cm of diameter is
allowed (Tanteak 1995). Market prices for teak timber may vary from 400 to 2500 US$ m-3,
depending on the grading rate assigned to the product.
Torres et al. (1995) carried out a silvicultural evaluation of tree plantations in Costa
Rica, and found that pruning is more often considered to be a cleaning activity rather than a
silvicultural technique. More often is the practice of drastic pruning (removal of almost all
the branches) of young trees in teak farms and even in medium-size companies. There are
few recommendations for pruning intensities for timber species in Costa Rica. In general, it
is recommended to prune trees up to 50% of the total height just after the first thinning
(Keogh 1987, Chaves and Fonseca 1991, Galloway 1993), or according to commercial log
sizes, i.e. up to 2.5 m sections (Murillo and Camacho 1997). Majid and Paudyal (1992)
16
consider that pruning should be done at early stages in order to minimize knotty cores.
Moreover, early pruning (at 2 or 3 years of age for tropical species) should be performed on
all trees to avoid suppression by neighboring trees. Hubert and Courrand (1988),
Hochbichler et al. (1990), and Raets (1964) consider that the diameter at pruning height
should be three times greater at harvesting than it was at pruning, in order to make the
activity economically profitable.
In many countries where large-scale teak plantations have been established recently, the
importance of intensive and on time pruning interventions is not yet clear. In Central
America, for instance, pruning is carried out arbitrarily, i.e. executed after visual
assessment using subjective criteria, without considering important scientific and
economical criteria such as maximization of volume free of knots vs. costs of pruning. The
pruning of teak trees must be carried out intensively during early plantation stages, since
later the costs of the activity increase while the benefits decrease

FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

Tectona grandis plantations in Costa Rica

Fast-growing, high-yield tree plantations are an increasingly significant source of wood in
the tropics. In these areas, the improvement of wood productivity is an important economic
goal. In Costa Rica and other countries in Central America most of the tree plantations,
especially those of advanced age, have not had the expected productivity. The main causes
for this have been bad site selection, use of non-improved genetic planting material, and
lack of appropriate silvicultural management (Torres et al. 1995, De Camino et al. 1998,
Castro and Raigosa 2001).
T. grandis was introduced in Costa Rica and other countries in Central America
between 1927 and 1929. Until the year 2000, approximately 223,000 ha of T. grandis
plantations were established in this region (Pandey and Brown 2000). In the past 10 years,
Costa Rica has steadily increased the annual plantation rate of several species to an
approximate total of 11,000 hectares per year. In 2000, the total area of plantations reached
178,000 hectares, of which 30,300 ha (17.0%) corresponded to Tectona grandis (FAO
2000).
Governmental incentive programs have encouraged the establishment of commercial
tree plantations in Costa Rica, reaching 140,000 ha by the year 2000 (Sage and Quiros
2001). Projects and private companies in Central America urgently need relevant growth
and yield information for those species most widely used in reforestation projects.
Determining the production throughout the rotation is particularly necessary in the case of
advance-aged plantations (over 20 years).
The important property requirements of end-users in fast-grown T. grandis are straight,
least-tapered boles with reduced flutes/buttresses and knots, low proportions of juvenile and
tension wood, high proportions of heartwood, and optimum wood density and strength. The
two mayor factors that influence sawn wood grade and recovery are unsound hollow knots
and deep flutes in the logs (Bhat 1998). However, no scientific-based recommendations are
11
available in the literature and many silvicultural activities, such as pruning and thinning, are
carried out, in most cases, based on visual assessment and common sense. No studies are
available on the maximization of wood quality properties by means of intensive teakplantation
management in Central America.
Linking forest management to timber industry is fundamental. Connections between
silvicultural management and wood quality are limited, providing only size-related
characteristics (girth and height growth, stand volume) as useful information. Particular
grading rules set up by international markets for natural teak obtained in Asia, are currently
limiting the selling options of several forest companies in Central and South America due
to difficulties in meeting such stringent demands, mainly those having to do with minimum
log dimensions and wood defects. Therefore, efficient management practices leading not
only to maximum per-hectare volume production but also to a desirable individual-tree
commercial volume production are strongly needed. Lack of sufficient financial
information to evaluate the profitability of T. grandis plantations is discouraging new
projects willing to invest in reforestation.
Several studies on growth and silvicultural management are available for teak
plantations in the Tropics, however, they have been somewhat scattered and without
practical or conclusive results. Available management prescriptions and growth projections
lack high-quality supporting data, complementary studies on stand competition, volume
projections, merchantable volume estimates, information on the effect of different
management regimens (on growth, yield , and quality), reforestation and management
costs, wood prices and market grading, and financial analyses justifying the investment.
Within the next 10 years, most of the teak plantations in Costa Rica will be thinned for a
second, third, or forth time, or even harvested at rotation ages between 20 and 30 years.
Final yield (total and merchantable volume according to market requirements), total
management costs, wood prices, and management options are urgently needed to inform
owners, investors, and consumers about the real stock of commercial timber available at
present and future, and the possible expected value of their plantations.
The present study focuses on management scenarios developed according to production
objectives, plantation quality classes, and rotation periods, aiming at producing high quality
timber. The study does not cover all the factors influencing a tree plantation system, as they
are numerous and some are very complex, e.g. genetic and climatic resources, fertilization
regimens, land preparation, site conditions and soil quality, wood processing industry,
among others. The general framework of the study is presented in Figure 1. Management
prescriptions should reflect the objectives of production, which should have a level of detail
for estimating not only total yield but also the merchantable volume according to type of
products. The type of products should reflect the market demand (dimensions, quality, and
aspect) and should be reflected in the stand management design.
Pruning and thinning are key silvicultural activities, and together with the rotation
length, are decisive factors for achieving different levels of quality and yield of round wood
products. In this study, round wood is the last stage of the chain of production; further
processing into board feet or furniture is not considered, as the many possible products and
insufficient information make a deeper analysis difficult to achieve. A financial analysis
complements the set of growth scenarios with different possible economic returns

PLEASE GO FOR TISSUE CULTURE TEAK

FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

WHY CLONES ARE THE BEST IN TEAK?
OPINIONS OF THE EMINENTS (DAY TO DAY MORE ARTICLES WILL BE ATTACHED);

  1. BY Mr. R. S. NADGAUDA, Mr. S. V. KENDURKAR, and Mr. V. M. KULDKARNI of NCL , PUNE on TEAK TISSUE CULTURE FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY:
    Plant Tissue Culture occupies a central position in plant biotechnology, whether it is micro propagation of superior mother clones, conservation of germ plasm, genetic transformation or generation of novel plants through genetic engineering. It has long been realising that, tissue culture micro propagation of superior genotypes can result in capturing genetic gains, leading to increased productivity per unit area. Mass multiplication of the identified plus trees selected for higher growth, disease resistance and wood quality in vitro is known as micro propagation. This method is preferred over the conventional method of rooting; grafting and propagation through seeds as the plants produced are true to type, disease free and can be produced round the year. Here the method of choice is meristem culture.
    Tissue culture studies on teak with an aim to develop a micro propagation protocol for rapid multiplication of mature identified mother clones were undertaken way back in late seventies. Extensive studies were conducted on right from germination of seeds in vitro, protocol for seedling multiplication and most importantly culture of meristem from trees (80-100 yr. old) growing in Allapally forest, Maharashtra, India. The constraints of control of phenolics, contamination faced during the initiation and establishment of cultures were combated, shoot cultures were established, further multiplied and rooted in vitro to obtain complete plantlets which were successfully transplanted to soil (Guptha et. al., 1980) Tissue Culture raised plants were field planted at different places in Maharashtra and small scale field trials were conducted in collaboration with Maharashtra Forest Development Corporation, Maharashtra. The data received on the growth performance of these plants was inconsistent and could not be considered for the analysis of growth performance of tissue culture raised plants in the field. However during the same time a field trial in a randomized block design with seven replication was conducted at NCL, Pune to study the growth performance of tissue culture raised plantlets of seedlings and elite tree origin in comparison with seedlings raised from seeds. The significant increases in height and growth were reported in tissue culture raised plantlets of seedling and elite tree origin as compared to seedlings raised from seeds. The elite tree origin showed highest growth increment. Growth performance of these plants has been reported (Mascaranhas et.al., 1987, 1993).
    The performance of tissue culture raised plants of teak planted in 1994 at Madhya Pradesh has indicated an average increment of 17.85% for height over control within 6 years. In one of the trials planted using tissue culture raised plants in Chattisgarh, the height increment of tissue culture raised plants is 40.75% higher over control and girth increments 62.09% higher over control at the age of 3 years. The trial conducted at National Chemical Laboratory, Pune using tissue culture raised plants of clones has shown higher growth as against seed raised controls (although it is conducted in loamy soils).
    As an outcome of the extensive studies carried out at National Chemical Laboratory, Pune the achievements are very significant. The most striking observations in the field are that tissue culture raised plants showed more than 90% survival, very high uniformity and accelerated growth, resulting into reduction in rotation time. The results of specific gravity analysis are encouraging suggesting that the technology has definite advantages and if exploited commercially, can lead to significant gains.
    CONCLUSION OF MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD. BANGALORE.
    We are saying that, not only the opinions of the above eminents, but also many surveys are proving that, selected clones are the best for raising TEAK plantations to obtain maximum yield with maximum reduction of rotation period. By adopting tissue culture technology, We the MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD. BANGALORE., are producing Andhra Pradesh Forest Department identified TEAK CLONES, what are suitable for planting in all most all the areas in 130 countries in the world, having rainfall in between 400mm to 2000mm above. We are proudly reiterating that, we the MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD. BANGALORE.is “ONE and ONLY” company got success in giving commercial mass production of selected TEAK CLONES. Hence, dear intellectuals, please think about the facts and come to take an ideal decision in selection of our “Mother Biotech” produced suitable and perfect TEAK CLONES for your planting programmes. Our “Mother Biotech” productions of Andhra Pradesh Forest Department identified and some other important TEAK CLONES are available with us

further details contact
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

Indicative estimates of teak plantation standing volume

Diminishing supplies of teak timber from natural forests have, as already noted, contributed to the recent increase in teak plantation programmes. Will these new areas meet future demands? This section looks at the possible contribution of plantations to teak timber supplies.

The calculation of future availability of standing volume in planned teak plantations would seem simple enough - the factors in the equation for the calculation of standing volume are area, establishment rate, growth rates, and rotation. Unfortunately the values assigned to these factors are most often, if not always, imprecise, being derived from estimates or even expert opinion. The uncertainties surrounding the calculation of true values of figures for existing plantation areas have already been mentioned in Section 3 above, while the planned plantation programmes are subject to unknown political developments, as well as to such unknowns as the availability of land. Very little information is available on the existing age structure of teak plantations, although it is known that much, if not most, has been planted since 1980. Applying a blanket rate of mean annual increment country-wide involves assumptions about the uniformity of growth rates and ignores the local variability of soils and climate, while rotation lengths may be changed according to market conditions, developments in conversion technology, or economic conditions. Finally, future markets for high quality teak timber and veneer are likely to continue to be strong, but whether plantation-grown teak will be of sufficiently high quality remains unknown.
Despite these uncertainties and the unreliability of the figures thus derived the attempt has been made to obtain an indication of future supplies of teak timber from existing and planned plantation programmes, if only to see if such “ball-park” figures suggest that present policies are more or less likely to meet predicted future demand. Such indicative estimates are, however, neither reliable in the dictionary sense of being assured, nor in the sense of statistical confidence.
A model was developed to derive indicative estimates of future hardwood plantation standing volumes (Leech 1998), as part of a wider project to study hardwood plantations in the tropics and sub- tropics7. The model uses the factors of area, future establishment rate, growth rates, and rotation as listed above to estimate standing volumes by 10-year periods to 2050, but the factors are adjusted for uncertainty based on published information where available and expert opinion where not. One of the adjustment “modifiers” is for existing area while the other three cover new planting rates and volumes. They are:
• A reduction factor for reported plantation areas. Since the reported area often means “accumulated planted area”, which may be very different from the actual area existing, a reduction factor was applied to adjust the reported plantation areas, described in Section 3, Table 1. The reduction factor was derived either from inventories where available, or by expert opinion. It does not necessarily reflect the “true” figure. The figures in Table 1 were further adjusted to include only areas established for veneer- or saw-log production.
• A modifier to adjust the current rate of new planting as plantations mature and the new planting changes to replanting of logged plantation areas, or as land is no longer available for expansion. The value was based on expert opinion if sources with experience were available, but otherwise arbitrary values were used.
• A modifier to adjust the volume increment figure downwards for losses due to competition- induced mortality or other possible reductions, or upwards for possible increases due to tree breeding or better management practices.
• A modifier to adjust the volume for availability, that is to allow for the age structure of existing stands and for the unavailability of increment early in the rotation of new plantations, by partitioning the increment between the increase in standing volume and that available (from thinning) for use.
To further take account of the uncertainty of the indicative estimates, three scenarios were tested on the model by adjusting the volume increment estimates: a pessimistic scenario, with mai of 3m3/ha/yr, a realistic scenario of 5m3/ha/yr, and an optimistic scenario of 8m3/ha/yr.

Tissue culture teak plantation productivity is very high when comparing with stump plantation.so go for tissue culture teak plantation .

Regards
BALAKRISHNA MUTHUKURI
MOTHER AGRI BIOTECH INDIA PVT. LTD.
BANGALORE.
+919035003471

Dear Sir,

Are you the same person who earlier was advertising about the nursery near chittor/tirupati.

And also I saw some complaint thread about non responsiveness.

After all the articles from Web, can you please share the price of the plant.

I have come across many other nurseries who claims that , their is the only nursery in the world to produce the high quality teak tissue culture.

I have met 3 nursery sales guys in Hyderabad. And another one from Tamilnadu.

Dear Sir, On 24 th of sep 2015, i have purchased 140 nos TC Teak Plants from M/s Mother Agri Biotech P ltd, Magadi Road, Bengaluru, technically headed by Sri Muthukuri Balakrishna, and planted them on 28th sep 2015 in my land in Sadili village, near Chikballapur, Karnataka.

When i have planted them in my land, they were 2 inch above soil surface, and with small 2 sq inch leaves… Now they are at 15 inch to 18 inch height at soil surface and with 20 sq inch big leaves.

Up to now I am happy and found them with satisfaction growth.

g.p.rao,    farmer

Dear Sir,

I was one of the directors and the Technical head in SHILP-Tirupati.
We had many issues with other directors internally apart from other external issues (like-no post sales service by the concerned- which you mentioned) due to which I had to wind up the company and start on my own.

We have our team of professionals who take care of the post sale services and we guide our customers throughout to help our customers get the best yield.

We charge Rs.225/- per plant.

Please call 9035003471 for further details.

Thanks & Regards,
BK.