Pkm -1 annual moringa - an insight into improved cutivation


Seed rate – 500 grams per acre
Spacing  - 2.5 meter row to row and 1.80 M plant to plant distance along the rows
No of plants per acre – 4000 / 2.5 M* 1.80  M = 888 plants
Season of planting – June – July
Pit size – 45 cms length 45 cms width 45 cms depth pit is made ( if soil is black and clay soil ) for easy growth and development of roots
Manure – 5-10 kgs of  farmyard manure per pit or 5 MT of poultry manure per acre . And mix these farmyard manure with Azospirrillum  and phosphobacteria  and speudomonas  and  VAM fungi and apply this mix to planting pit
For 888  pits you need 4.40 – 8.80  MT of farmyard manure @ 5-10 kgs per pit .This 3-6 MT of farmyard manure is mixed with each 5 kgs of azospirrillum and phosphobacteria and pseudomonas and 10-25 kgs of VAM culture and sprinkled with water and covered in a wet gunny bags for a week or 10 days time .
Seed treatment – Soak moringa seeds in 5%  panchagavya solution ( 30 ml panchagavya in 1 lit water … take 1 lit water and pour 50 ml panchagavya into the water and mix it well and then put moringa seeds inside the panchagavya water solution for 1-2 hours in the evening and by around 7 PM take out all the moringa seeds from the solution and place it over the wet cotton cloth , tie the cotton cloth loosely and hang it overnight . Next day morning open the cloth bag and add 50 grams each azospirrillum and phosphobacteria to the seeds and mix it throughly and keep it under shade for 30 min to one hour before sowing int he pit .
Planting – fill the pits with top soil and then add the above manure bio fertilizer mix@ 5-10 kgs in each pit . Sow one seed in each pit and after sowing seeds apply 50-100 grams super phosphate to each pit and then give irrigation  or if drip irrigation system is available , run the drip after sowing seeds in the pits 
In about 50-60 days the moringa will have grown 60-80 cms heigh . Pinch the terminal shoot to the height of 60-75 cms from ground level . This will produce side branches . when this side branches grows 60 cms long , cut each side branch to half length say 30 cms ( 60 cms long side branches are cut back to 30 cms long ) . Again many branches are growing from these side branches . Again these side branches from earlier side branches are cut back to half of its length . Like this you need to do pruning ( cutting o branches to half of its length ) 3-4  times before flowering .
Flowering – Flower will be produce in about 4.5 to 5.5 months after sowing  ( so you will be pruning the plant until flowers are shown up  .) once flowering is noticed you should not cut any of the branches . The plant will not be allowed to grow high toward sky . All the branches should be bent down
Fertilizers – When pinching is done ( cuting termial shoot at about 2 months period ) apply 44 grams nitrogen , 16 grams phosphorus and 30 grams of potash to each moring  plant …This will need you to buy 85  kgs of urea, 89 kgs of super phosphate and 44  kgs of Muriate of potash
In about 150 -160 days apply 50 -100 grams ammonium sulphate per plant . This will need you to buy  45- 90 kgs of Ammonium sulphate per acre
GA3 ( gibberalin hormone ) 20 ppm ( 1 ml in 50 lit water ) is sprayed on 90 th days ( completion of 3 months afteer sowing ) .you may need 250 lit water to cover entire area . so you may need 5 ml GA 3 for a spray
If GA 3 is costly , dissolve 5 lit of sour butter milk and 5 lit of tender coconut water together and mix 1 lit of this tender coconut butter milk mix  in 10 lit water and spray over moringa leaves 2- 3 times from 3rd month of sowing after pinching of terminal shoot .This will produce more flowering
Flowering and pod formation – in about  4.5 to 5.5 months after sowing the plant will start showing flowers . And in about 8-9 months after sowing the moringa fruits/ pods will be ready for harvest and harvest will continue for 3 months .
Yield – Each tree will produce 225  fruits per tree . For 888  trees it will be 1,99,800 fruits / At an aveage fruit weight of 100 grams the toal yield will be around  20 MT( 20,000 kgs )
Income – At selling price of 25  ruppes per kg , it wil produce          Rs.5 ,00,000 per acre per year
After harvest trees are cut back to 75 cms height from ground level and allowed for second crop ( ratooning )
Water should not stagnate in the field . If soil is clay you should give drainage along the slope. In summer per tree needs 4 lit water . You can give water once in a week in summer . If water scarcity exist , mulch the field around each tree with paddy straw or other organic waste

For present condition – just cut the central shoots that is gown high into the sky and spray buttermilk coconut water solution two times at weekly interval and GA 3 once after cutting the central shoots .
Technical details about flowering mechanism
Flowering  initiation – 150 – 180 days
Pod formation – 210 – 240 days
Pod length – 37 to 45 cms
Pod girth – 6.3 cms
Pod weight – 80-100 grams
Plant height – 4.0 meter
No of pods per tree – 220 to 250

FLOWER – zygomorphic and gullet type
Flowering two times a year- February – April  , September – November
Pollination – Geitonogamous ( self pollination ) ,Xenogamous pollination  ( cross pollination )
Flower opening – 3.00 hours to 19.00 hours
Insect visit ( Bee ) – 6.00 to 15.00 hours
Length of flowering in February – may – 51 days
Length of flowering in September – November – 60 days
Flower drop – 30 % during Feb – May, and 40 % during Sep- Nov
Anther dehiscense – Open flowers available – 5.00 to 9.00 hours in association with temperature range of 27.3 to 29.3 degree Celsius , RH – 68-78 %
Overcast sky and rainy weather delay the process by 30 minutes .Flower is viable for 72 hours
Stigma become receptive 24 hours after anthesis , continues to be so for 48 hours and then turn light brown

Hence right season  and method of cultivation will produce good yield


Thanks for your support…  Everything is fine but getting 5 lac income from 1 acre is not acceptable, we are doing the same drumstick cultivation in 25 acres, not even got 25 lacs from all 25 acres. It’s all totally depends on market price.  Drumstick price will be high in November, December and January but these three months no tamilnadu farmers can take yield … You may be corect for Maharashtra and Gujrart farmers not Tamil nadu farmers.    Maharashtra and Gurajar have not received any rainfall in these months so their farmers can get yield in nov, dec, and jan and get good price in the market . ie. 50 to 70 rupees per kg … Please don’t miss lead the farmers…


Great …So it means that  if you could not get the yield then no other farmers can harvest the yield more than what you harvest in your field . Instead of just reading  bottom few lines , please go through entire paragraph that will explain your queries… Your area is receiving plenty of rainfall in both the monsoon , SWM as well as retreating monsoon .so it will be a real problem for you to harvest economical yield . That does not fit our case . I have not written for you alone .I have mentioned common technical things about moringa cultivation - PKM 1 . SO you need not be mislead by my writing

Actually I have lost field pictures of  beautifully yielding PKM 1 moringa .Otherwise I would have explained with pictures of heavy yielding moringa field…Inspite of rain you can still harvest good yield if you choose to sow quality PKM 1 moringa seeds . Some private companies are producing seeds by open pollination and the seeds harvested from this open pollinated moringa field produce only  30- 35 % of potential yield . If you get seeds from repute producers/ Research institute that produce seeds by assisted pollination you will see  80 % success rate …


Dear Ramu,
I am from Telangana and i am planning for Pkm 1 in the coming rainy season. Temp is summer reaches upto 45… Through out the year temp hovers around 30 except Nov Dec Jan. Rainfall is very less. Soil is red. Will this be suitable for Pkm 1?
Please advise where to get quality seed like you mentioned. Pls share some contact nos.

Thanks in advance.



Dear Mr.Jaydev
Nothing to worry about your soil that very well support your moringa plantation  …Moringa generaly is a drought tolerant crop that tolerates 45 degree celsius for a short period …

IF water deficit is noticed , you can adjust planting time close to onset of monsoon rain say  mid of June …small quantity of irrigation water supplemented with rainfall will keep the plantation on normal growth and development
so the moringa will successfully grow for next 6-7 months till early February …Then moringa needs stress for initiation of flowering

If you have acute water deficit . then you can sow seeds in the centre of pit or trench 15 cms down the surface and  you need to increase the plant density by 2.0 to 1.5 Meter row to row and plant to plant thus  sowing 1333 seeds per acre …And mulching and enough Farmyard manure say 10 MT per acre or 10-15 kgs of farmyard manure per pit with extra potash will save plant from stress dufing early vegetative growth period

you can place order for seeds with nearby KVK …

pruning should be limited in dry condition …


Dear Mr Ramu,

Thanks for very quick response. I have one more doubt. I was going through net and the forum and found that there is one more variety moringa is available ; ODC.

From your personal knowledge  and experience, Can u please advise which one is good between these two, PKM1 OR ODC. Is there any differences in practices in cultivation between these two varieties or practices are same.



Great question and your doubt sounds reasonable …
ODC ( native moringa variety called by location ottanchatram in dindigul district of tamilnadu ) and PKM 1  ( selected and improved from existing local moringa varieties along the western ghat area for its earliness in flowering and pod formation )) are belonging to same family group called moringa oleifera ,PKM 1 is annual moringa producing harvest in about 6-7 months  and harvest last for end of the year and tree can be cut back to  1 M height from ground level for allowing to produce  second  crop and thus you can produce  yield for 3 years at the maximum  ( one main crop and two ratoon crops )and where as ottanchatram ODC moringa is a perennial  variety producing yield continuosly for 7-10 years …But selection of variety  either PKM 1 or ODC depends on your land condition …Fertility of soil and its productivity status …


Dear RAMU sir,
what you said is true, in ideal conditions (wrath of the nature and market is not in our hands), with the high yield, we can get the amount you mentioned. One farmer in our area earned a net profit of 3 lakhs per acre last year. Anyway thanks for your valuable guidance.


RAMU sir,
can you please share the details on the PEST and DISEASE management in PKM1 also any preventive measures like some people say that spraying of Neem oil every 15 days till the flowering stage will help in prevention of many pests in Moringa and papaya etc.


Moringa pest
Major pest is Fruit fly / pod fly since it directly affect the fruit yield
Other pest are bud worm , hairy caterpillar , leaf webber and bark borer.
minor pest are mites , aphids and whitefly

Root rot due to poor drainage / excess water .Wilt disease due to hard impervious sub soil layer , severe drought and prolonged stress

yes you can spray neem oil once is 15 days .but you can not expect complete control of pest .Neem product has ovicidal effect ( when the neem oil is sprayed on insect eggs it will not hatch  into worms that is infectious ) and antifeedant

For successful moringa farming and pest and disease control

1.Ensure drainage and break sub soil hard layer if so needed .It ensures proper root growth and root volume

2.sow the seeds in the direction that allows winds and sun light pass through interrows

3.Do manual weeding atleast onetime if possible and keep the field weed free

  1. Mount the soil around base of the tree in case of black soil or sow the seeds in raised bed

5.Remove overcrowded branches and prune the tree periodically once in two to three months period

6.Apply more farmyard manure enriched with bio fertilizer like Azospirillum during planting / sowing

7.treat the seeds before sowing - panchagavya treatment 24 -36 hours before sowing will ensure quick germination and early establishment

8.Last but not the least , undertake cultivation in accordance with your field condition and prevailing weather
9.If you do the above ,almost pest and disease occurance will be overcome .And then you can do need based spray of chemicals …meaning more preventive measures and least control measures


RAMU sir,
Thanks a lot for your valuable advise.

  1. what are the crops that can be intercultivated along with Moringa.
    2.  at what time it is ideal? like both the Plantations should be started at the same time or after Moringa attains certain age?
  2. once the 1st harvest is done, I think we have to prune it back to 1feet from the ground? and also people say about inducing stress during this time… like water should not be given for a month or so?
    please let us know the answers.


What is the trick to get flowers/fruits in off season time? What are the steps to plan the fruits to mature when the prices will be on higher side?



Your questions sound very interesting and I hope you have the answers also for the same …I would be happy if your good self explain the steps


Hello Sir,

Your post contains almost all the details that I required about PKM1 murungai. I have bookmarked this post  :slight_smile:

But I am still not clear about high density planting (2 plants a hill with spacing of 1m x 1.5m). Do you recommend this high density planting or should I go with normal density?

Also, you have mentioned that there will be 40% flower drop in Sep season but I have heard instances of close to 100% flower drop due to inclement weather. Can you please throw some more light on this?


That depends on your soil type and locational factors



My land is located near Cheyyar (12 kms) towards Peranamallur with annual rainfall around 800mm. Soil type is red-loamy. Dry weather most of the time.



Great…filed location seems to be good . Do follow everything perfectly and most important,  adjust sowing time and follow all cultural practices in time . june planted crop will not suffer damage in monsoon rain . something is problem in your cultivation and better correct it



I will follow the practices correctly and will also update the statuses, possibly with photos, from June onwards.



Do the practices well but no need to post picture for me .


Sorry I have not gone through all your lines, now only I read the entire paragraph. Ok seems good, very good analysis and you are technically very right. 100 percent you are correct. I have noted all your points and registered in my farm database. Thank you once again for your technical support. You are technically correct but commercially very wrong.  I never said or say that your intention is wrong but your commercial line may mislead the farmers who are already in trouble because of no rain and very less market price of their output.
If my assumption is right,  you must be a government agricultural officer or employee, because the agricultural extension officers of the country  too theoretical and lacking in practical experience. This is the fact… I have seen this many times in my own experience. Many of my questions are ignored or unanswered by the agri extension officers but nicely addressed by some experienced formers.  You must agree this this… 

We are reading in the newspapers that farmers are committing suicide around the country and you people are suddenly wake up and in a public forum that a farmer can year 5 lacks in one acre by cultivating drumstick without the basis knowledge of marketing, this is called misleading. This will encourage farmers to lake more loans and force them to leave out of agriculture sector.  Kindly provide me the contact details of the farmers who have earned 5 lacks in one acre in tamilnadu.  If anyone says or even if you give then he or she must be the “Germination seed seller” or “sapling seller”. This is what happening in goat farming, many commercial goat farmers advertise that “earn 50 lacks in one year” ,  to sell their breeds with high margin.

I am from kanyakumari but my farm is not at kanyakumari district, which is located in Radhapuram Taluk of Tirunelveli Districit. This is also a rain shadow region like Aravakuruchi belt of Karur district or Dhamapuri dist of Tamilnadu. This is the main reason we have entered in to drumstick cultivation.  Our area is rain shadow area however, Drumstick is being cultivated on more than 1000 acres of land both as a garden crop and field crop. Here we are the only farmer tested PKM1, PKM2 and ODC. Even we have started with 3 areas no we reach 25 acres.  All other farmers of our region are cultivating PKM1, Alaki and Yalpanam, etc variety.

In drumstick cultivation, yield is not a matter or issue, even a person without farming knowledge can get good yield if he follows proper schedule of water, fertilizer and pest control. Even we got abundant yield. How much yield you get in November, December and January is the matter. Getting yield in March April doesn’t help you economically. As per your calculation even  if a farmer from Tamil Nadu gets 20 MT of yield, normally  70  percent of the yield comes in the month of March, April and August when the market price is very less ie. Rs 1- Rs6. He can manage to get only 5-10 percent of yield in November, December and January.

Mainly (80 %) Tamil Nadu receives north east monsoon  which commence from October third week  to January fist week, in these three months , there will be 80 to 95  percent flower drop in drumstick tree which leads low production and fetch very high price in the market in November, December and Janvary. But  Gujarat, Maharashtra and  Teleungana states do not receive rain fall in October , November and December so they can get good yield in these month  and good market price. In these three months, Tamilnadu vegetable markets need more drumstick so that time the buyers or exporters get pods from Baroda and Mumbai market. In these three months, the farm gate price for drumsticks will be 60 to 80 rs per kg…

The following is the last 12 months market analysis, this is our own database based on Nagercoil ,kavalkinaru, Tirunelveli, Channai, Bangalore and Ernakular markets. We are sending our pods to these markets only.  April  - 4 Rs, May  - 12 Rs , June  - 25 Rs , July  - 60 Rs,  August  - 16 Rs , September  - 8 Rs, October  - 20 Rs , November  - 60 Rs , December - 80 Rs , Jan    -  90 Rs , Feb  - 15 Rs , Mar  - 4 Rs.

As far my knowledge is concerned, cultivating drumstick in larger area may end with huge loose for Tamil Nadu, Kerala and southern part of Karnataka and Ander Pradesh farmers . ie. The states, which are receiving north east monsoon. But I will recommend drumstick cultivation for small scale farmers , for example, even if the market price is 4 rs per kg that also profitable for small farmers who do in one or two acres, sine  their family members only do the harvesting , farm activities and transportation to the nearest mandi. But in case of big farmers even 10 rs per kg also lose for them.  We are also thinking to switch over to leaves cultivation where there is no region or climate issue.
Going in larger area of drumstick cultivation in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Telungana is like a golden goose for the next four to five years.  Now many big farmers in Gujarat and Nashik and Nagpur region of Maharashtra have entered this cultivation in large scale like 50 acres, 80 acres and earning 3 to 5 lacks per acre.    This is my own experience I visited more than 25 drumstick farms in Gujarat and Maharashtra where more than 400 acres are cultivated under our guidelines. We are providing Agri- consultant service on drumstick cultivation to the farmers of Gujarat and Maharashtra for free of cost.   
If anyone wants to know about drumstick cultivation,
Kindly contact in the below address.
Indian Agri Farm,
Contact no: 9619091811, 9619524939