I know you have mentioned short term crop. I am replying, since it will be used for feeding goats.
I would suggest you to plant jack fruit trees. However in the first year you may have to irrigate if rainfall is low. in TN it is low. But if it survives the 1st year of planting then there is no looking back.
It is a very sturdy plant. Plant banana or some other crop that can give it shade for the 1st year. And if some saplings perish plant them again next year
Jack fruit tree is a excellent and only main feed used for goats in olden time. they love the leaves. I know a person who planted 1 acre full of jackfruit trees. land was fenced and 40+ goats released on the land.. Jackfruit sheds leaves through out the year. So goats easily survived on the fallen leaves.
Once the trees are tall and fruit bearing after 6 to 7 years. You can market jackfruit Jam(source - ruchikacooks.com/?p=499) or feed it to cattle provided you remove seeds and the spikes from the skin. It fills their stomach very well and milk production increases considerably. After few years sell timber which fetches good market price. Timber is of superior quality, would resists termite to a very great extend if properly harvested and taken care. Attached house was built by our ancestors and is almost 110 years old. Complete structure is made of jackfruit wood(but the timber would be from 200 to 300 years old tree, we fell one huge tree few years back on our land, so I can guess by the size the trees used would be very old).
Not just that jackfruit tree has amazing ability to make soil fertile. It also has the ability to leach stones with its feeder roots. I have notice soft fertile soil with almost no stones inside the canopy of the tree where as on other part of the same land, it is full of stones and non fertile soil.
You will create a store house of food and create a forest like environment. Water retention of the soil will improve.
This person should be able to source you sapling and get some more idea on jackfruit tree. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/jackfruit-man/882937/
Each year he distributes more than 3000 sapling in Kerala.