Groundnut cultivation in organic methods

Since last one decade , the concept of organic farming in India is gaining awareness among the people and demand for organic food items is increasing among the people in higher echleon and upper middle class
But there is no definitive concept or idea of organic crop production  methods or technology wrt exact quantity of various sources of organic nutrients and time of its application and regulation of growth and flowering and management of pest and diseases …
As a trial project we started organic farming in Groundnut variety TMV 13 .
Groundnut needs major nutrients as follows
Nutrients requirement per acre – 10.0 kgs nitrogen , phosphorus – 20.0 kgs and Potasium – 30.0 kgs
Since organic sources of nutrients are available to plants far too slow , and different sources of organic nutrients release nutrients at different rate , we combined green manure, enriched farmyardmanure, concentrated oil cake and gypsum
So far vegettive growth seems excellent and is found responsding well to organic manures …


Namaskaram.
Eager to read the coming posts from you in complete organic cultivation.
r seshaadri, tumkur

[quote="RAMU"]
Since last one decade , the concept of organic farming in India is gaining awareness among the people and demand for organic food items is increasing among the people in higher echleon and upper middle class
But there is no definitive concept or idea of organic crop production  methods or technology wrt exact quantity of various sources of organic nutrients and time of its application and regulation of growth and flowering and management of pest and diseases …
As a trial project we started organic farming in Groundnut variety TMV 13 .
Groundnut needs major nutrients as follows
Nutrients requirement per acre – 10.0 kgs nitrogen , phosphorus – 20.0 kgs and Potasium – 30.0 kgs
Since organic sources of nutrients are available to plants far too slow , and different sources of organic nutrients release nutrients at different rate , we combined green manure, enriched farmyardmanure, concentrated oil cake and gypsum
So far vegettive growth seems excellent and is found responsding well to organic manures …

Thanks Ramu Sir. Do post your overall experience post harvest.

Sridhar Mangalam

This groundnut TMV 13 will come to harvest in about next 40 days . This is Rabi groundnut . The same farmer had also cultivated groundnut in Kharif season . The cultivation practices were  followed as noted  below

Technical aspect of yield is explained for better understanding

ORGANIC GROUND NUT CULTIVATION
Variety  - TMV 13 ( red kernal variety with high oil content )
Duration – 105 days
Seed Rate  - 80 kgs per acre
Plant population per acre  - 133333 plants @ spacing of 30 cms * 10 cms
No of  pods per plant  - 15 numbers
Total number of pods – 133333 plants * 15 = 1999995  pods
1000 pods weigh  - 1076 grams = 1.076 kgs
No of plants per square meter = 33
So per acre yield of pods -  no of plants per sqm * no of pods per plant * 1000 pods weight /1000 *4000 ( convertion of square meter into acre ) * 1/1000 =
33plants per square meter * 15 pods * 1076 grams/1000 * 4000 *1/1000 = 2130 kgs pods per acre
Nutrients requirement for successful harvest
Nitrogen – 10 kgs
Phosphorus – 20 kgs
Potasium – 30 kgs
Above nutrients are given through following sources
. Important point to note in organic farming
. In case of organic farming , soil should be enriched before sowing seeds . 10- 15 kgs of sunhemp green manure seeds are sown in the field 2 months before sowing groundnut seeds . In about 50 days after sowing green manure seeds , the crops are ready for incorporation back into soil .before incorporation of green manure into soil broadcast 100 kgs of gypsum over the crops and then plough it into soil ( Gypsum is an organic class of nutrients )  This  will produce  about 5 .0 MT of green bio mass and give around 45 kgs of Nitrogen ,  6.0 kgs of phosphorus and 35 kgs of per acre
After incorporation of green manure , apply 5.0 MT of well decomposed Farmyard manure during the last ploughing . This will add  20.0 kgs of nitrogen and 5.0 kgs of phosphorus and 15 .0 kgs of potassium
So total of 65 .0 kgs of nitrogen , 11.0 kgs of phosphorus and 50 kgs of potassium are added to soil .
Out of 65 .0 kgs of nitrogen 30 % of the nitrogen will be made available to the groundnut since its mineralization is slow and subtle .so 30 % of 65.0 kgs = 20.0 kgs . Besides ground nut root nodules synthesize nitrogen inside the roots with the help of symbiotic bacteria called  Rhizobium . so Nitrogen requirement is made available sufficiently
Also phosphorus and potasium are  made  sufficient …
The calcium applied through gypsum will be useful for peg ( young developing pods ) formation .and sulphur in the form of sulphate will assist rapid root growth and enhance oil synthesis .
Before planting apply 50 kgs of neem cake per acre
50 kgs of Powdered farmyard manure is mixed with 2.0 kgs each Rhizobium and phosphobacteria and broadcast before sowing seeds
Seeds/ kernal treatment  -  The keranals are treated  with either Trichoderma virie @ 4 grams or pseudomonas @ 10 grams per kg of seed kernal . After 24 hours , mix 600 grams each Rhizobium and phosphobacteria well in 500 ml cool rice gruel and put the seeds into this bio fertilizers mixture and shade dry for half an hour  before sowing .
Around 40-45  th days apply 150-200  kgs of gypsum after removing weeds and mount the earth around the base of the groundnut plants . Flowering and pod formation will be active aorund 60 th days after sowing  and pods will mature in about 90 days after sowing and harvested in about 100 – 105 days .

Mulching sheet ( optional ) – 7 micron thick black polythene sheet can be used .
Advantage of polythene sheet – Prevent weeds , early flowering  , early harvest by 5-7 days , more yield
Manual weeding  @ 25 th days and then @ 45 days .
Controlling insect pest
Green gram / black gram / cowpea seeds are sown @ 4:1 raio . For every 4 rows of groundnut one row of gg/bg/cowpea seeds are sown . The sucking pest are attracted to these border crop and save the ground nut .
Neem oil or neem seed kernal extract are sprayed @ weekly interval .
Sex pheromone trap is planted @  5 numbers  per acre to attract male insect  moth  of prudenia pest
Panchagavya spray – 3.0 % spray @ 15 days intreval starting from 30 th days after sowing ie, 30, 45, and 60 th days
Humic aicd spray - @ 3.0 % on 50 th day and 65 th day
Most important thing in groundnut yield and quality of pods is concerned about micronutrients like , Zinc, Iron and boron . The  flowering and pod formation and development will be influencd very much by the baove called micronutrients . So sanjivini plus @ 40 kgs per acre is applied at the time of planting
If  Red hairy cater pillar  ( major pest n groundnut )  are noticed , bio pesticide like  NPV spray  100 LE mixed with 1.0 kg  sugar .and sprayed in the evening hours for effective control
Bird perch – 10 – 15 numbers of “ T “ shape wodden frame are to be installed . The birds will sit on this T shaped wooden frame and pick the larvae and eat it
Fungal spore spray – Aspergillus flavrs  - control the larvae .
Disease control – Spray Asafoetida @ 3 % to control leaf spot disease .
Generally groundnut responds very well to organic cultivation with highest yield  and quality pods

Will post details after the harvest of present Rabi crop