Farm Pond - practical evaluation

Hi,

I am trying to evaluate and have the following questions answered:

  1. when are farm ponds an option?
  2. how effective are farm ponds?
  3. what should be the realistic expectation of the output from a farm pond?

Assumptions:

  1. Annual average rainfall of 700 mm distributed over 3 weeks in July
  2. Medium-light soil with good permeability
  3. Land topography allows harvesting in pond
  4. Land area of 15 acres
  5. Rain water is the only source for harvesting, no runoff from neighboring lands is available
  6. The harvested water is allowed to percolate in contour trenches/swales; only excess water beyond them is collected in pond(s)
  7. No other source of water for cropping - no wells or borewells in the land
  8. 1 ha can collect 250m[sup]3[/sup] of water into a 12m x 12 m pond
  9. Evaporation losses are 50% of collected water
  10. Percolation losses are 5% of collected water, reduced to this level by use of plastic sheet

I will update this topic with my thoughts, all inputs welcome!

…The most beautiful thing about water harvesting is that there is a human-rain-land synergy. What the table shows clearly is that rainwater harvesting is possible in all human-land-rain scenarios…

rainwaterharvesting.org/Solu … hmetic.htm

rainwaterharvesting.org/rura … y_more.htm

rainwaterclub.org/rural_ponds.htm

dhan.org/farmponds/farmpond_def.php

Dear Chandra,

  1. When are farm ponds an option?
  • Farm ponds are not optional, but MUST for the reasons of their utility services.
  • Water facility farmer friendly for animals, Cattle, self-grown birds, insects at emergency.
  1. How effective are farm ponds?
  • Ponds recharge underground water and helps plants to tolerate drought season.
  • Water evaporated from the pond will cool the atmosphere very close to farmland.
  • Water/irrigation facility for newly planted crops.
  • Shelter for tortoise, frogs, snakes (Snakes are not enemies unless there is threat from them) which will eat rates and others.
  • Water is essential for bees to reside in nearby location. If honeybees kept in farms land than it is highly useful.
  • Pond clay is the important resource for construction of their shelter for farmer friendly fly’s, bees etc.
  • There is the food chain in the nature and one kind animal are food for other animals to have balance and control in nature.
  1. What should be the realistic expectation of the output from a farm pond?
  • Pond will be the only source of drinking water for farmer friendly animals.
  • Pond water can attract more birds and animals to be around farm and eat farmer enemy animals like rats, insects etc.
  • Harvesting water that may waste if left it as it is to go away from land.
  • Storage of water which can got from other areas with free of cost.
  • Increase of yield in crops with the direct and indirect reasons.
  • Improves moisture around the pond by way of evaporation of water.

Assumptions:

  1. Annual average rainfall of 700 mm distributed over 3 weeks in July
    • Do cultivation prior to heavy rainfall and allow to recharge in to soil.

  2. Medium-light soil with good permeability.
    • Plant few plants, which can hold the soil without erosion.

  3. Land topography allows harvesting in pond.
    • To get maximum benefit from it.

  4. Land area of 15 acres
    • No matter whatever the extent, but hold as much as possible water in land.

  5. Rain water is the only source for harvesting; no runoff from neighboring lands is available.
    • Hence, do not waste single drop of rainwater for the use of crop, animals & atmosphere.

  6. The harvested water is allowed to percolate in contour trenches/swales; only excess water beyond them is collected in pond(s)

• Make use of collected water with due diligence for maximum benefit.

  1. No other source of water for cropping - no wells or bore wells in the land.
        *  Therefore pond replaces the water sources for land & crops.

Can you come back with your thoughts?

Thanks guys, for the responses and links. I have no doubts on the benefit of ponds in general; I would like to quantify and set expectations of the benefits too. I am updating the opening post with additional assumptions.

A hectare of land seems to be capable of collecting 250m[sup]3[/sup] of water in a 12m x 12m pond as a thumb rule (source: IndiaWaterPortal).

This translates to 100m[sup]3[/sup] per acre. While no data is available on what annual rainfall was considered, its spread and if percolation in trenches also was assumed, I will go with this number.

The pond area used up would be 0.2135 acres in the form of 6 ponds of the standard size above.

So 15 acres should collect 1500m[sup]3[/sup] or 15,00,000 litres of water.

A 50% evaporation loss and 5% percolation loss from the pond would mean a usable volume of 45% which is 6,75,000 litres over 15 acres over an year.

Looks good so far?

Here is a step by step process…

cseindia.org/node/1162

For rainfall data

rainwaterharvesting.org/rainfall_index.htm

Hi Chadra,
  few theoretical calculation in laymans language as below.

Assume rainfall 700 mm.
So it means rainfall of 0.7m on each sqM is 700 litres

1 Hect rainfall is 1000*1000 == 10000 * 700 == 7000000 (7 million or 70 lakh liters on every hectar).

Now acres calcualtion
1 hect == 0.404685642 acres

Now you could deduct percoalation and evaporation loss, aproximate runoff can be calculated by checking quality of soil .

Pls google “Water harvesting and soil moisure retention.pdf” for calcualting runoff theoretically .

water tank volume calculation.

aquadyntech.com/tanksvolume.html

imd.gov.in  should give historical data for each district in all states.

Hope it helps .

Thanks,
Prashant

Here is an interesting TED lecture … 8)

ted.com/talks/anupam_mishra_ … sting.html

Sir, where we want to buy the license for fish farming Sir???

Anyone reply sir urgent need Sir

@padmanabhan_ganesan may be able to help.

Thanking you sir, contact number sir

Send ur contact number Sir will contact u… Where are u located Sir??

To my knowledge, licensing is not required. To get more information, contact your nearest KVK.

Tq Sir I’m locating in Ambattur Sir… Where is the near by KVK sir

  1. Dr.E.Sumathi, Co-ordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tirur-639 115, Thiruvallur District. Phone. Mobile: 044-27620233/ 28141136 9865021683 kvktirur@tnau.ac.in
  2. Dr.P.Kumaravel, Prog. Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kattankulathur Post, Kattupakkam,Kancheepuram- 603203. Phone: Mobile: 0442-7452371 9840113681 kvkkpm@yahoo.com
    These are the nearest KVKs for you.

I would recommend Kattankulathur as I have attended training there and the Fish Training was good.