You all know that “prevention is better than cure. ”A livestock farmer can maximize his/her profit by taking some simple remedial measures against diseases which is otherwise called as preventive health care. I have decided to create awareness among sheep & goat farmers through my postings in FarmNest. I shall complete preventive health care in five phases. One article on this subject will be posted every week starting from Monday 17th October 2011. Sheep goat farmers/entrepreneurs can post their suggestions on above subjects. I shall try my best answer their queries.
Dear Dr. Kar, this is very helpful.
I would recommend the information be posted on the wiki so it remains as a good reference. Go ahead and post the articles on this topic and we can move them to the wiki section appropriately.
Appreciate your help,
We all take different precautionary measures to protect our wealth. Our farm animals are also our wealth & we must protect them against diseases. The measure we adopt to protect our farm animals from disease are called Biosecurity. It is a planned integrated approach to reduce disease incidence in a farm. Here are some important biosecurity measures for sheep/goat farm
1- Control cat, dog ,rodent & insect population inside farm premises as they carry & spread diseases. Cats should be kept away from sheep & goats as they are major carrier of toxoplasma which causes abortion .
2- Limit visitors into your farm as disease causing organisms enter farm through their shoes sole. Visitors must disinfect their shoes in antiseptic foot bath before entering in to the farm.
3- Limit entry of vehicles in to your farm as disease causing organisms enter farm through contaminated tyre of the wheel. Disinfect tyres of vehicle entering in to your farm by spraying a disinfectant liquid.
4- Feed of sheep & goat should not be moldy. If moldy feed is found in a farm it should be buried.
5- Deworm your animals at regular interval after faecal sample examination
6- Vaccinate your animals against contagious diseases
7- Do not mix sick animals with healthy animals. Isolate sick animals in a separate pen.
8- In case of abortion in ewe/Doe Remove the dead fetus & placenta immediately & burry it. The lambing/kidding area should be disinfected with an antiseptic lotion.
9- Do not mix newly purchased animals with other farm animals, New animals should be housed separately for 21 days to one month & watched for presence of disease. Trim the feet of newly purchased animals & treat it locally with 10% zinc sulphate.
10- Do not mix your animals with animals of other farm.
11- Do not share your farm equipments with other farmers
12- Disinfect farm equipments before sharing if it is unavoidable
13- Do not allow ewe/doe of other farms to breed with buck/Ram of your farm & vice versa.
14- Avoid taking your animals to shows/exhibitions as there is increased chance infection in shows/exhibitions
15- Conduct post mortem examination by a veterinarian In case of death of a farm animal .If death is due to any contagious disease take preventive measures accordingly in consultation with the Vet.
By taking these biosecurity measures you can reduce disease incidence in your farm & maximize your profit. Dr.A.K.Kar
Deworming In Sheep & Goats
Sheep & goats are susceptible to worm infection due to their grazing habitat. Deworming is one most important disease prevention measures for them. Internal Parasites harbours in alimentary track & other internal organs(liver ,bile duct etc.) of sheep & goats. They suck blood , digested nutrients ,damage tissue & make animals week , emaciated. Helminthes parasites of sheep & goats can be broadly divided in to three Categories Round Worms ,Flukes & Tape Worms. Out of the these Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) a type of round worm , is the most important & dangerous internal parasites of sheep & goats. In heavy worm infestation animal may die without any symptoms in some other cases death occurs after diarrhea & colic. Worm infestation is more after rainy season. You can follow the following principles for deworming of your flocks.
i. Randomly collect fecal sample of 10% animals get it examined to find the parasitic load
ii. Choose appropriate dewormer in consultation with a veterinarian
iii. Use appropriate dose (under dose may create drug resistance & over dose may kill your animals)
iv. Deworm your animals at least twice in a year.
v. The first deworming should be conducted before rainy season in the month of June & July. Repeat drenching of drug on 21st day of first deworming .
vi. The second deworming should be conducted after rainy season in the month of October.
vii. Use a drenching gun/ syringe for effective drug delivery
viii. Conduct fecal sample examination on 10th day of deworming to know the effectiveness of the drug.
ix. Change deworming drug every time to prevent drug resistance.
x. Do not sell your dewormed animals during withdrawal period
Control of coccidiosis in sheep & goat
Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of sheep & goats .This disease is caused by single cell protozoa Emeria sp .The parasite remains in small intestine & damage lining of small intestine. This parasite affects lambs & kids from 2-6 months of age. Affected lambs and kids suffer from diarrhea stained with blood & mucus. Death occurs in kids & lambs due to dehydration. Some animals do not show any symptoms externally but there is stunted growth. Outbreaks of coccidiosis occurs due to over crowding & poor sanitation. You can follow to following steps to prevent coccidiosis in your farm
1- Provide adequate floor space to sheep & goats as over crowding is a major cause of the disease
2- Prevent contamination of feed & water as adult sheep & goats are carriers of the parasite. They shed oocyst in their feces which is the major source of infection for kids and lambs.
3- Preventive dose of coccidiostat can be given to given to kids and lambs in consultation with a veterinarian. Coccidiostart can be mixed with feed as a preventive metod.
4- Treat the infected animals with anti coccidial drugs as per prescription of the veterinarian
5- In case of outbreak clean & disinfect pen daily this will reduce source of infection
It may not be possible for me to give answer to your questions for about ten days since I am on an official tour . I shall give answer to all your questions after returning from tour.
Control of external parasites in sheep & goats
External parasites like Tick, Lice. Mite & fleas & flies reduce profit & cause economic loss of sheep & goat farmer .They cause following losses to the farmer.
1-They suck blood from animals causing ill health & anemia.
2-They damage the skin for which skin becomes unsuitable for leather & its value reduces greatly.
3-Skin injury causes irritation & discomfort to animals
4-There is loss of wool in case of sheep.
5-They transmit disease
External parasites can be controlled by Dipping or spraying with insecticides & by good managemental practices. Three to four dipping or spraying is essential every year for control of these parasites.
The following insecticides are mostly used for control of ecto parasites.
1-Deltametherine (Butox) 2ml/litter of water Spray or dip
2-Cypermethrin (Ektomin. Cyprol, Tikkil, Tik-out, Pektocide) 1 ml/litter of water for spray or dip. (for flies 5ml/litter animal dip, For spraying animal house 20ml/liter of water is used)
Ivermectin injection (Neomec, Ivomec, Ivectin, Avertin) is also used as sub coetaneous injection at the dose of 0.5ml/25 Kg body weight
Doramectin (Dectomax) 1ml/33Kg Body weight can be used as intramuscular injection.
1-Read all manufacture warnings & instructions before using insecticide
2-Provide adequate drinking water before Dipping else animal may drink insecticide poisoned water
3-Do not use insecticides on sick, weak animals or animal with damaged skin.
4- Do not use insecticides in kids and lambs up to 6 months age
5-Conduct dipping/Spraying in morning hours
6-In case of poisoning symptoms contact your veterinarian immediately for treatment Dr.A.K.Kar
Vaccination is one import disease prevention measure. Many fatal diseases of sheep & goats can be prevented by timely vaccination. It is the cheapest method of disease control .Vaccination increases immunity of the animal against disease for which they do not suffer from disease even after entry of disease coursing organisms in to the body. It also reduces economic losses associated with illness of animal. I am giving below vaccination schedule for sheep & goats
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE(FMD):-This viral disease can be prevented by vaccination. First vaccination for FMD is done at 3-4 months age. Booster vaccine is given four months after first vaccine .This vaccine should be repeated every six months. Oil adjuvant FMD vaccine can provide immunity up to one year.
PPR :-(Goat Plague or Peste des Petits Ruminants) This is a viral disease & is highly fatal. This is the most important disease of sheep & goats as It results in large scale mortality. This disease can be prevented by vaccination. First vaccination is done at four months age & is repeated every 4th Year.
GOAT POX –Vaccination for this viral disease is done at 3-5 months of age .A booster vaccination is given to goats after 3 weeks of first vaccination. Repetition of vaccination is done every year.
SHEEP POX :- Sheep are vaccinated at 3 months of age against the disease. Repetition of vaccination is done every year.
ENTEROTOXAEMIA :- Sheep are more prone to this bacterial disease. First vaccination against the disease is done at 3-4 months age for both sheep & goats. Booster vaccination is done after 15-21days of first vaccination. . Repetition of vaccination is done every year.
HS( Hemorrhagic septicemia):-This is an acute bacterial Disease of sheep & goats. First vaccination against the disease is done at 3-6 months of age & is repeated annually .Vaccination against HS should be done before onset of monsoon.
ANTHRAX :-This is a fatal zoonotic disease of sheep & goats. This disease can spread from animal to man. Vaccination against this disease is done only in endemic areas. First vaccination is done at 4-6 months age & is repeated annually.
Nice information Doctor
There is news of a outbreak of foot and mouth disease around Chikkaballapur area. My farm is locarted in Jathawara village and I have inoculated my cows and sheep. This information was relayed by the local Health unit at Gidnahalli.
Thanks Parami, for the info.
Do you mind elaborating the process you followed for the inoculation so it might help others?
Dear Mr. Chandra,
During the Doctor’s visit no symptoms were detected. So only the inoculation was done. The inoculation has a gestation period of 10 days, so during that time a watch should be kept on the animals for fever, blisters in the mouth and feet. The immunity of the vaccine lasts for 6 months.
The premises are to be cleaned with 4% sodium bicarbonate and Potassium permanganate solution. A foot wash of the same solution can be kept at the entrance of the shed.
Dear Dr. Kar
Thanks for the information. Will you update in the future?
Dr. Philip Benis
Good Shepherd Farm
( A unit of Best Foundation, Pondicherry )
62, Villianur Road,
Ph: 0413 2290142, M: 9443438532.
Dear Dr. Philip Benis
I shall update these topics in future. Dr.A.K.KAR www.odishavet.com
Thank you kindly for all the insightful ad detailed information
Dear cow/goat farm owners,
I will suggest to study and adopt Homeopathy ,a very very effective way to keep your
cattels healthy and hearty. For example a medicine called Cina or santonin is effective for devermin,if the cattle is having bloody stool coted with mucus give it merc.cor,in fact homeopathy has answer to every problem the cattels have right from ticks problem,to milking,mastitis,prolapse of uterus,prolapse of rectum if you get good insight of homeopathy the cattel can be kept healthy without inoculation. Homeopathy is safe and natural. If you learn (just by reading simple books ) you can do homeopathy as it is very safe,your cattle will never suffer even if you give it wrong medicine,(why I say this? If you read the basics of the subject you will know this,and also with practical experience ) its a fun to learn and do Homeopathy,and protect your near and dear with it.Homeopathy can be used safely for all living being(Plant also included), Frineds ,you will be surprised to see the results when you do it on your own,its an enjoying journey. For any further guidance you can contact me 9773551402 or bapu4 at yahoo.com
P S- Homeopathy is very very cheap,it cost only 5-7% of the cost of allopathy if you do it yourself,which can be done simply reading the books and understanding the symptoms of animal.
Your idea of using the Homeopathy is very nice, if you have any such book for the treatment of live stock, please mention the book name and the availability of medicine in local market. till now i not heir any veterinary doctor available in Homeopathy. hope your full guideline will support the farmers.
You are correct,but I got some selling at amezon,com which you can google and find the books seem quite over cost to me .It is better if you
learn Homeopathy on your own (off course its a matter of interest),but
let me tell you its not the name of medicine that one should be interested in,actually you should understand the total philosophy behind the prescription,so learning the philosophy is the essence,if you start learning you will wonder its less of medicine and more of philosophy and spiritualism,hence it doesnt recognize any bacteria,viruses,names of the disease.I think this is getting too lengthy,to cut short if you learn it ,it is easy to learn and is great fun as well as you will get to see the miracles,yes I say miracles while treating your catteles/family members,
once you start reading/learning it,after a few days you will be possessed by the subject (you will automatically develop a passion)and you will never know how ans when you became a homeopath.You or any one reading this can ring me and take further guidence free on 9773551402.
yes, we want idea to prevent goats from diseases.