Dairy Farm Questions

Dear Sir,

I am working in Saudi Arabia since 1995, I would like to start small dairy farm in Kerala (Thuruthy P.O. Kuruppampady, Perumbavoor, Ernakulam (Dist), Kerala – 683545.

Shed Construction work finished.  Now I wanted to buy 25 Cows and Milking Machine and other Equipment for Dairy Farm.  Please let me know  whether any Govt. Scheme (State/Central) for the said purpose.  Also where I can get Hoslten Cow and Jersey Cow in Tamilnadu.

With Best Regards,

E.Mail Address : wilson_sasi@yahoo.com

First decide how many cows/buffaloes you want to keep.
• Plan the dairy shed with sides open giving good ventilation
• Proper drains to be planned for urine to drain with 1% slope to the floor where cows are standing outside the feeding manger.
• It’s better if you can put cow mats made of rubber in the cow lying area.
• If it’s more than 10 cows it’s better to have a back to back system with a wide passage of at least 6 feet in the centre.
• Plan for vermi composting & organic manure production which can go along with dairy farming without much expenditure
• Learn the feeding methods. Avoid over feeding. Always make water available in front of the cows. Install drinking bowls in front of the cows, connected to the overhead tank.
• Plant fodder. (CO3,Kutirai masal) Have your own fodder land. 1 acre for 8-10 cows is the recommendation.
• Keep dairy shed under good shade or plant shade giving trees around the shed.
• Keep hot dipped galvanized partitions between cows if possible or use good quality GI pipes
• Minimum 25 kg greens per day to cows, hay can be used as filler only.
• Recommending trolley mounted milking machines if its 10 or below, fixed type for 12 or more cows, easy to milk, job will be simplified in fixed type milking systems. Have a DG set back up as you need power during milking time. Machines are there to milk 10 cows at a time, 100 cows in one hour.
• Have plastic/aluminum feeding buckets to give water and feeds. Never mix cattle feed in water. You can soak it in water and it must finally look like dough for dosa. Not at all watery.
Keep in touch!! Happy dairying!!

In starting stage it’s better to keep 10 cows, learn the art of cow farming. Avoid brokers while purchasing cows. Avoid farms too. Imagine i have a farm and you are coming to buy cows. I will give the cows which are non productive or having some incurable disease. Better to go with a reliable farmer friend who knows how to select cows. A fat cow may not give good milk I mean more quantity. Good cows are available at kaverippattinam village near krishnagiri /near dharmapuri a place called kariamangalam, Bangalore- Salem route. You may have to negotiate hard. See the cow you would like to buy getting milked for 3 times continuously. Get information about the feeds given too by them

You need a cow shed with sloped floor towards the back of the cow. A mild slope for the water to drain (say 1 %). If slope is too much, it will be dangerous for cows, human beings and for pregnant cows. A cow needs a standing place of 2 meter length and 4 feet width apart from the feeding manger in front of the cow 1/2 metre.The feeding manger should be in the shape of the alphabet ‘C’ turned to the left.

You don’t need any special permission from any govt body to start dairy farm. The building (cow shed) needs building permit as per your plan from the local panchayat. There is absolutely no harm in using machines. You will get good, clean, hygienic milk without froth from the machine.

For 10 cows if you need a single can machine with oil free vacuum pump and oil free pneumatic pulsator. 1 or 2 people can manage.

Having a bulk milk cooler is a good idea because milk will not get spoiled. (Not recommended for 10 cows). But if you have the facility to sell the milk as soon as it is milked, you don’t have to spend money for buying a cooler. Please do not buy local coolers, buy it from reputed companies only.

Milking machines normally works on electricity and it has a milking can with 30 litre capacity. Buy only good machines with pneumatic oil free pulsator and vacuum pump. We are in that business. It’s better to have generator back up as during milking time you need power back up. Never buy machines with old /outdated technology which works with the sound of a steam engine in today’s world. Make sure it presses only two teats (pulsation in opposite teats, one in the front and another at the back) and not pressing all the four teats which is technically wrong thing to do, how we milk our cow with both hands.

Money is there from the front of the cow ( milk) and back of the cow ( cow dung conversion to organic manure or vermi compost with earthworms- you make vermi compost by leaving good earth worms- its having good demand in places where vegetable cultivation/flowers/coconut/where ever is there chemical fertilizer is used.)

Maintaining buffaloes is good but not recommended for beginners. Keep cows, learn the art of dairying, and then you can venture into buffaloes. They yield less compared to cows, but as the fat percentage in milk is more you may get more money for their milk per litre cost. (Buffalo curd is tastier).

When they become old you dispose it off or give it to some goshala. When they are dry, inseminate them if they are in good health. For any cow dry period is there.

Milking parlour (suitable for larger herds) means milker will be standing in a pit and cows will stand in a platform and the milk from its udder will get collected in a SS pipe in the centre / side of the pit and falls finally to a bulk milk cooler or collecting vessel. No milking cans will be there. Milker will be standing in a pit in the centre or the sides. Milk from the udder of the cow will go the milk cooler untouched by hand. The milk given by each cow can be measured using milk meters installed in the SS pipeline. You can measure and record the yield of each cow when you do it this way but it’s expensive. You need a small trolley machine with 30 litre can cluster assembly with oil free pneumatic pulsator. With one can you should be able to milk 10 cows in one hour. For cleaning milking equipment like milking cans you need acid and alkaline detergents. Soap is ruled out as milk will get the smell of soap. Try visiting www dot tarimak dot com

I am importing machines from turkey which is ISO certified and manufactured as per European norms. You may consult a chartered accountant who has experience in preparing agri project reports. I visited turkey last year to learn more on dairy farming.

Drinking bowl fixed in front of the cow, bowl made of SS, ensures that your cow gets good clean drinking water whenever it needs, from the overhead tank. Water starts flowing when cow puts it head inside by the lower jaw of the cow pressing the lever inside the water bowl. A good cow requires about 100 litres of water a day.

Calf bottle- for calves, you can feed required quantity of milk through the feeding bottle. It’s better to avoid leaving the calves for drinking milk from the cow’s udder as it may bite and injure the cow. If pain is there cow will not give you milk.

With Chaff cutter you can cut CO3 grass (which grows up to 7 feet height, may be more too) to small pieces. For 10 cows hand driven is more than enough.

I am recovering from an accident which left me paralyzed for more than a year. I am slowly recovering from the accident. I can walk now, moving around in my car.

Keep in touch.

Murali Krishnan
Sri Vinayaka Agencies
opposite Medical college high school
Medical college Post

Selection of cows:

• Buy cows which are healthy, look for the milk vein under the stomach ending in udder.
• Better buy dehorned cows.
• Always find out what feeds were given to that cow and slowly switch over to the feed available in your area. A sudden change might result in drop of yield.
• Buy cows which have just delivered within 3 weeks.
• Better to buy cows less than 5 years of age.
• Normally in cows, the first 3 lactations are good. The best will be 2nd and third.
• Look for signs of mastitis, problems due to delivery, any infections suffered like FMD needs to be checked.
• Its always better to check the milk yield by the purchaser by milking the cow continuously for 3 times.
• Reduction in teat size after milking is a good sign. Teat size must be long.
• Bright eyes, big stomach, long body, good skin texture with polished hair, are other natures to look out for.
• Udder and teats must be soft.
• Better to deworm the cows after purchase. Not immediately, after 1 or 2 months.
• Never buy cows believing brokers words. They also project a big picture as their aim is to make money from both ends.


Murali Krishnan

Advantages of cow mats:-

  1. It increases blood supply to teats and udder.
  2. Preferred and liked by cows.
  3. Soft lying area, protect them from cold floors.
  4. Increased productivity and more profitability
  5. Protects the skin texture, reduces chances of lameness and udder problems.
  6. Good for leg, thigh, stomach region.
  7. Helps to improve milk quality and yield.
  8. Expenses on bedding material wont be there.
  9. Easy to clean by just flushing and use barn scrapers.
  10. Clean cows.
  11. Motivates the cow to stand during urination and defecation
  12. Anti bacterial surface
  13. Acts as shock absorber.
  14. Protects the knees, thighs from friction from the ground. 

Installation of the Cow Mats provides the ideal indoor surface for your cows’ comfort - as close to natural turf as you can get. Cow Mat reliably absorbs the shock repeated impacts and eliminates the risk of injury to-even the heaviest cow. Rubber mats absorb pressure, reduces friction, prevents chances of lameness, laminitis, reduces the risk of injury to teats, udder, knees and legs. In the process of lying down the animal actually freefalls the last 10 to 12 inches. So providing cow mats acts as a shock absorber, thereby eliminating the risk of injury.

Outside factors affecting the yield of cows includes age of cows, number of calving’s, number of milking in a day, feed quality, nutritional contents in it, quantity. Normally a cow reaches its peak lactation from the fourth to sixth calving. After that the yield gradually reduces. Its better to keep the age factor in mind while selecting cows. If chilling of milk is possible, 3 time milking is recommended, an increase of 15% to 20% is normally seen in such cases. The udder size, milk veins are normally taken into consideration while selecting cows. Teat size too matters.

Breeds seen in India: Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Ongole, Tharparkar, Kankrej.
Foreign breeds: Jersey, Brown Swiss, Holstein Fresian…

Milking machines are 100% safe. The same Milking Can/Machine can be used for milking cows and buffaloes. Complete milking is possible. The difference is with the milk let down pattern in cows and buffaloes. In cows you can see milk as soon as you attach cluster but in buffaloes it takes a little more time for the buffalo to start milk let down. Cows complete milking in 6-8 minutes irrespective of their yield but in buffaloes, multiple let downs are there, so it takes little longer. Pneumatic pulsators, oil free ones have an alternating pattern (only two inflation / liners close at a time). The alternating pattern results in less claw flooding in units with a small claw, no backward pressure, ensuring good let down.

Dairy Housing:-

Factors to be considered while planning dairy housing:-

Temperature, wind direction, rain, sunlight, atmospheric pressure, cold climate – a mixture of all these factors are very crucial influencing the general climatic conditions for dairy farming. It affects the herd directly or indirectly. Adjusting to these factors depends on the breed and protective measures taken care by the farmer. Feeding, housing, healthcare, disease resistance are some of the factors in the protection schedule. Temperature, if its high, in general the cow shows lack of interest in feed intake, and shows more water intake. This results in low milk production. Normally certain foreign breeds show poor performance due to this reason. It’s better to bring cows from places where a similar climatic condition of your locality exists or you try to give those conditions here by bringing down temperature. Water availability is an important factor here. Whenever the cow feels like taking water it should be available in front of it. When temperature rises, cows start gasping. It’s better to sprinkle water on the cow’s body and head - once or twice in a day during summer. It’s better to construct dairy housing facilities accordingly after carefully analyzing these factors. Under 10 cows its better to house cows in a single line. 20 cows can be housed in the following way- 10 on the right, give 6 feet space in the centre and mirror image of the right side copied on the left side. It’s better to build with side roofing .5 metres more than the side beam supporting the roof so that rain water does not enter the shed. Side opening must be of minimum 2 metre height . feeding manger inner width .75 metres, outer wall of the manger .90 metres and inner side facing the cow .40 metres, having a “U” shape.

Murali Krishnan

Feed racks, Cubicles and Cow Mats

Feed locks are supplied to feed the animals regularly
and with desired measures. The locks can easily be
opened and closed with one lever. It has been specially
design to feed young and mature cows. It supplies to
move the cows safe and easy during the feeding process,
and it allows you to make the feeding according to the
various animal groups in stall. The feeding locks have a
practical on-off mechanism. The feeding locks will be
manufactured by galvanic plating to protect them against

Cow Mats:
It is suitable for animal health.
It keeps the floor under animals clean.
It prevents the udder virus.
It prevents mastitis diseases.
It increases the milk productivity.
It is economical than the straw which will be laid under
the animals.
It protects the animals against cold with its isolating
It decreases the feed consumption.
It prevents the wounds on forelegs.
It prevents the knee-breaks.
It eliminates the rheumatism.
It prevents the umbilical wounds.
With its wide grooves, it allows to flow the water and air
under the mats and prevents the bacterium nestling.
The mat bars are creating a separate area for each and
every animal to rest.
These areas are supplying the possibility to separate
the animals in groups, allow making regular cleaning
operations and ease the animal traffic.
It restricts the movements which may cause to various
The animal stands will be manufactured by galvanized
plating to protect them against corrosion.

Automatic water trough is an equipment
manufactured by cast and fitted with a buoy
system. With the buoy system the animal
can drink so much water that it needs, and it
prevents both the dirt and wasted-water.

We deal with Milking Equipments, Watering devices/bowls,Feed racks,Cubicles and cow mats. PM me.

Cow cooling:-

In case of human beings, when things get hot, we find ways to cool down. We fire up air conditioners, get wet, or get the air moving with fans. Our animals are no different. They feel the heat, and they wish to relax.It’s a proven fact that when cows get overheat, milk production goes down. There are a few different things that can be done to improve our herds comfort when the temperature starts to rise. We feel like taking a shower on cold water if we were outside on a hot day. When we sweat, we are using the moisture to draw the heat away from our skin. This same theory applies to cow cooling or misting systems. Our body is instantly cooled by the water drawing away the heat and the same theory applies to our animals.Air movement is also crucial. Stagnant air will feel hotter. Like the water drawing away the heat, air movement can also reduce temperature. Air circulation systems are a great way to help keep your herd cool and comfortable. There are also many systems like your basic fans over the free stall or tie stall, or setting up a tunnel system where the air will actually be forced through the barn. When the air is moving, even in hot conditions, it can make a big difference in reducing heat stress in your herd. Many systems combine these too main elements, water and air, using fans and sending a mist with the air to help reduce temperature while achieving the same or better results. It’s important to do your study first and find out what’s going to work best for your farm and your stock. It’s better to have cool, clean water for your cows to drink. She needs to stay hydrated to help reduce heat stress, keeping her milk production high and at its best in hot weather.

Happy Milking!!.

Murali Krishnan,
Sri Vinayaka agencies,