JEERA> Plant Description and Cultivation
A small, slender, glabrous herbaceous annual, of the parsley family. It usually reaches 25 cm (10 in) (some varieties can be double this height),and tends to droop under its own weight. The blue-green linear leaves are finely divided, and the white or pink flowers are borne in small compound umbels. Cumin is grown from seed. A hot climate is preferred, but it can be grown in cooler regions if started under glass in spring. A sandy soil is best; when the seedlings have hardened, transplant carefully to a sunny aspect, planting out 15cm (6 in) apart. Seed regularly. The plants bloom in June and July. The seeds are normally ready four months after planting. Cut the plants when the seeds turn to brown, thresh and dry like the other Umbelliferae
Cultivation : CUMIN
Apart from the theory,many field problems are likely to come up. many farmers manage with the advice of friends who may not know more than the asking farmer, or take advice from a dealer who is nothing but a business man who wants to sell the produce long standing old on his store. educated farmers can be able to get right advice and save the crop to get profits & serve the nation.
Climate and soil:
Cumin is a tropical plant. It grows well in sub-tropical climate too. High humidity during flowering & fruit set, causes fungal diseases in this crop. Cumin can be cultivated in all types of soils but thrives on rich well drained sandy loam and medium soils, being best suitable for the crop.
Sowing and Seed rate
Sowing is done from 1st week of November to 1st week of December by broadcasting or in rows drilled at 30 cm. Seed rate vary from 12 to 15 kg / ha, depending upon method of sowing & type of soil. Sowing of seeds should be done at a depth of 1 - 2 cm after treatment with Azotobactor 3.0 g per kg. Soaking of seeds for 8 hours before sowing is helpful in getting good germination. Soaked seeds should be dried in shade to facilitate broadcasting. When the seeds are sown at a higher depths affect the germination process adversely. Crop rotation should be followed to avoid incidence of pest and diseases.
Soil is brought to fine tithe by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or traditional plough. Stubbles of previous crops should be collected and removed from the field. Clods should be broken and field should be leveled with the help of plank. Beds of 4 m x 3 m size with provision of irrigation channels should be prepared before sowing of seeds to facilitate proper.
Irrigation and intercultural operations:
Manures & Fertilizers
15 - 20 MT FYM, 650 ml Nitrogen & 650 ml Phosphorus per ha is recommended for cumin crop. Whole quantity of FYM should be mixed into the soil at the time of land preparation and 250ml Nitrogen & whole quantity of Phosphorus should be applied as basal dose. Another, 250 ml Nitrogen should be applied as topdressing one month after germination of seeds.
The crop should be kept free from weeds for proper growth and development of plants. Generally 2-3 hand weeding are required to keep the weeds under check. In drilled crop light intercultural operation is beneficial. 1st weeding and hoeing should be done after 30-40 days from the date of sowing.
Based on type of soil, crop requires 4-6 irrigation. 1st light irrigation should be given immediately after sowing and second irrigation should be given after 6-10 days from 1st irrigation. Subsequent irrigations should be given after 30, 45, 65 and 80 days from 1st irrigation. Irrigation at the time of flowering and fruit set are essential. At maturity stage irrigation should be stopped.
Aphid: Aphid is a major pest of cumin crop; it sucks the sap of tender parts and reduces the yield. Spraying of Metarhizium anilosporium and Neem oil is recommended to control the aphid.
Leaf eating Caterpillar: This pest causes damage to the foliage of plants reducing yield of the crop. Spraying of Metarhizium anilosporium and Neem oil in the early stage of crop can control it.
Fusarium wilt: Infected plants show peculiar symptoms of dropping of tips and leaves, leading to mortality of the entire plant. Attack of wilt is severe in younger plants. There is no chemical control for this disease. Crop rotation and use of Neem cake are helpful in checking spread of the fungus vis-à-vis disease. Seeds collected from disease free plots should only be used for sowing.
Alternaria Blight: The blight-affected plants show very minute brownish necrotic spots, which later turn to blackish. Mostly diseased plants fail to produce seeds. If seeds are produced they remain shriveled, light in weight and dark in color. For the control of this disease seed treatment and spraying of Pseudomonas Bactor and Trichodema Virridae times at 10 days interval commencing from 40 days after sowing is recommended.
Powdery mildew: Affected plants in early stages show minute whitish spots on leaves, petiole, stem pedicel and seeds. In severe condition, it looks as the plants have been dusted with white powder. At later stages of attack seeds become white and shriveled and light in weight.
Generally cumin crop takes about 110-115 days to reach maturity. Crop becomes ready to harvest, when plants turn yellowish brown. Harvesting should be done early in the morning by cutting/uprooting the whole plants. Harvested crop should be dried in the threshing yard thrashed to separate the seeds. Winnowing should clean seeds.
600 - 700 kg/ha.