Soils can be classified as black or red or ??? . But the most important classification compares the amount of clay, sand, silt and humus the soil has. In my farm in Minnesota, USA, I have black soil. It is highly productive soil. We grow corn (Cholam) and soybeans. Our growing season is very limited (6 months or less a year) because of snow and low temperatures. If it clay soil and you expect heavy rainfall, you will have to try and tile (6" plastic tubing with holes) and drain the water away from the crops. If you have sandy soil, water stagnation will never be an issue as water will easily drain. The best soil for good production is sandy silt loam in areas with high rainfall and clay loam in areas with low to medium rainfall … in my opinion.
Classification of soil in Minnesota: sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay
On the other hand, In my farm in Nicaragua, it is volcanic soil and very very rich and highly productive where I can grow crops for 12 months of the year. It is loam soil. We grow red beans (mochai Kottai) rice, corn … permanent crops are oranges, lemon, avocado, pineapple, coconuts, papaya, coffee, guava, sapota to name a few.
Write to me if you have any questions… I am a veterinarian and I also work with cattle, chicken, goats and pigs.