What Constitute "Good Ploughing"?

Hello Everyone,

My name is Shakib, I’m a final year Masters student (In Environmental Science).

The reason I’m interested in this is that my thesis is actually centered on increasing Yield returns for Smallholder farmers & the first section is about what constitutes “Good plowing”, I am especially interested in finding a way to measure soil quality right after plowing.

Since I just started reading about the subject, I wanted to hear some domain expertise so that I base my research direction off of it.

So, If you had to measure the quality of your plowed small farm, what attributes would you use?

Any Information, Hints or Opinions are highly appreciated.

Thank you.