How to Convert from Chemical to Organic Farming - Guidelines by NHM

organic-farming

#1

National Horticulture Mission has published an excellent guide on Organic Farming System. It includes almost all the operational details you will require - how to go about it, what is jeevamrutha and how to prepare it, what is Natueco farming, how to prepare land, enrich soil, how to intercrop and so on.

I am attaching the complete guide (PDF) with this message. I’m also including below the section on converting a farm from chemical farming to organic. Keep in mind though that the 26-page guide has a LOT more details.

[quote][size=140]Conversion of soil to organic[/size] (page-7)

[size=110]Low Input Method (cheaper but requires more time)

In first year simultaneously sow three different types of legumes in strips, first of 60 days (like moong), second of 90-120 days (Cow pea or soybean) and third of more than 120 days (red gram) in strips. Apply mixture of Compost and vermicompost (2:1) @ 2.5 ton per acre enriched with 4 kg Azotobacter and 4 kg PSB biofertilizers or 4 kg consortia of customized cultures as basal dose at the time of sowing preferably in furrows below the seeds. Seeds of legumes should be treated with crop specific strains of Rhizobium biofertilizer.

Mulch the entire surface with a thick layer of biological mulch and drench the biomass with Jivamrut @ 200 lit per acre. Seedlings will emerge from this layer. If soil is poor in phosphorus then apply 300 kg of low grade mineral rock-phosphate along with the compost. Apply second dose of Jivamrut after 25-30 days of sowing with irrigation water or during rains.

To add to diversity 100 plants/ acre of marigold or Hibiscus subdarifa may be planted randomly through out the field. Few seedlings of vegetables such as chillies, tomato, brinjal, etc and rhizomes of turmeric, ginger etc can be planted randomly for home consumption.

Harvest the pods/ fruits and use remaining biomass  for mulch. Collect the crop biomass at the end of strips in the form of heaps and drench with Jivamrut. Sow short duration leafy vegetables (such as fenugreek  or spinach) in the space vacated by the first and second crop and mulch the surface with treated biomass. Harvest leafy vegetable and grains and incorporate remaining biomass in the soil
at appropriate time. 

In next season apply compost-vermicompost mixture @ 2.5 ton/ha and sow cereal crop with legume as inter or companion crop. After harvest use entire legume and remaining part of cereal crop as mulch.  If irrigation facilities are there, take summer legume with some vegetable crop. Recycle entire residue as mulch. Use 3-4 application of liquid manure (such as Jivamruta) during each cropping season for soil application. Now the soil  is ready for high value horticultural crops.

High Input Method (can be started immediately but expensive)

Incorporate 2.5-3.0 ton compost/ vermicompost or 1.5 ton of biodynamic compost, 500 kg crushed oil cakes, 500 kg rock phosphate, 100 kg neem cake, 5 kg Azotobacter and 5kg PSB biofertilizer or 4 kg consortia of customized cultures in soil through broadcasting or by drilling in furrows below the seeds. Sow 3-4 types of different crops in strips. 40% crop stand should be of legumes. Randomly plant 100-150 marigold and vegetable seedlings for increased diversity. After harvest incorporate entire residue in soil or use as mulch after sowing of the next crop. For second crop also use similar quantities of manures. Use liquid manure (Jivamruta) @ 200lit/acre 3-4 times during cropping season along with irrigation water. For increased productivity 2-3 sprays of vermiwash or vermiwash+cow urine or Panchgavya can also be provided. 
 
In fruit orchards cultivate 3-4 types of legume mixtures as mixed or intercrop in inter spaces along with adequate quantity of manures (as specified above). After pod/ grain harvest mulch the entire soil surface with the left over biomass and drench the biomass with 2 applications of Jivamruta.

After about 12-18 months the soil will be ready for organic cultivation of any crop combination. For next two-three years, along with any crop incorporate legumes as inter or companion crops. Ensure that crop residue always have at least 30% residue from legumes. Also treat crop residue with  liquid manure before incorporating into soil or using as mulch.[/size] [/quote]

Chandra, I think this thread can be pinned.
NHM_Organic_Management.pdf (237 KB)


#2

Fantastic job. Ton of valuable info. Please keep up the good work of posting useful information like this

Shiv


#3

Thanks Shiv. If you want to dive even deeper into detail, I’ve also posted course material from a certificate course in organic farming conducted by IGNOU. Available here.


#4

Thanks indeed. Very useful


#5

Dear Sir,

Thanks for the information.

can u please advise how much this cost per acre for any crop a farmer need to cultivate

regards
Rajesh


#6

Very very useful


#7

Very Good Share

Thank you